About This Chapter
Cell Division - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
With our bodies making trillions of new cells each day, cell division is an essential concept in biology. In this chapter, our instructors will explain the complex processes of mitosis and meiosis. You'll learn about the chromosomes contained in the cell and what happens to these chromosomes during cell division. You'll see each stage illustrated and learn some rhymes to help you remember the steps. After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Describe the steps of mitosis
- Explain the two stages of meiosis
- Identify the cell cycle stage of a cell
- Understand the structure of chromosomes at various stages
|The Genome||Learn about the 3 billion bases contained in the human genome and their organization into chromosomes.|
|The Structure of Chromosomes||Understand how DNA fits inside the nucleus of the cell by looking at chromosome structure.|
|The Cell Cycle||Discover the dividing and non-dividing phases of the cell cycle, including interphase, cytokinesis, and cell division.|
|DNA Packaging and Chromosome Condensation||See how 7 feet of DNA can fit inside a single cell via DNA packaging.|
|Physical Features of a Chromosome||Take a look at the different parts of a chromosome, including telomeres, arms, and the centromere.|
|Mitosis I: The Mitotic Spindle||Explore the structure that forms inside the nucleus to help the chromosomes align for division.|
|Mitosis II: Phases of Chromosome Segregation||Study the 5 phases of mitosis and how the chromosomes separate inside the cell.|
|Cytokinesis: Animal Versus Plant Cells||Learn what happens after the chromosomes have separated and the cell physically divides in two.|
|Asexual Versus Sexual Reproduction||Understand how organisms can reproduce with or without a mate.|
|Overview of Meiosis||Discover the mechanism used by reproductive cells to split into cells that each have one copy of chromosomes.|
|Meiosis I: Reductional Cell Division||Look at the first stage of meiosis, in which a cell splits into two and reduces chromosomes.|
|Meiosis II: Equational Cell Division||Explore the second stage of cell division for reproductive cells, which results in haploid gametes.|
|Nondisjunction and Aneuploidy||Study some problems that occur when chromosome segregation goes wrong.|
1. Basic Genetics: The Genome & Chromosomes
There are approximately 3 billion bases in the human genome. In this lesson, you'll learn more about the genome and its organization into chromosomes. We think about DNA often as the blueprint for life, but we can also think of it as the recipe for life with the nucleus being the library.
2. How is DNA Organized into Chromosomes? - Structure & Function
Explore the structure of chromosomes and see how DNA fits inside the nucleus of the cell. In this lesson, you'll learn about histones, chromatin and nucleosomes.
3. The Cell Cycle: Definition, Phases & Sequence
Learn about the dividing and non-dividing states of the cell and discover the different phases of the cell cycle, including interphase, cytokinesis, and the stages of cell division.
4. How is DNA Packaged? - Chromosome Condensation & Karyograms
Learn how DNA packaging makes it possible to fit approximately seven feet of DNA inside a single cell. You'll see how chromosome condensation helps cells get ready for cell division.
5. Parts of a Chromosome & Their Roles
Learn all about chromosomes, including the different parts of a chromosome and the types of chromosomes in diploid organisms like humans. Learn the vocab used with chromosomes.
6. Mitotic Spindle: Definition, Formation & Function
Condensation makes DNA ready / And microtubules hold it steady / A microtubule's a fancy rope / To move the DNA is the hope / From spindle poles they do extend / To align each chromosome in the end
7. Stages of Mitosis: Description & Sequence
Let's take a second look at mitosis and focus on the phases of chromosome segregation. As we concentrate on chromosomes, you'll learn the tricky dance that takes place through all five phases of mitosis.
8. Cytokinesis: Animal Versus Plant Cells
What's a cell to do when it must divide in two? We'll explore cytokinesis and see how the process can differ in important ways when it comes to plant versus animal cells.
9. Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction: Comparison & Characteristics
Did you know that some organisms can reproduce without a mate? Check out this video lesson on asexual versus sexual reproduction to discover the different ways organisms can reproduce and the main differences between mitosis and meiosis.
10. Meiosis: Comparison to Mitosis, Crossing Over & Process
Welcome to meiosis, a realm of division doubled for reproduction untroubled. You'll get a preview of both divisions of meiosis and see what it takes to go from a diploid cell to a haploid gamete.
11. Meiosis I Stages: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I & Telophase I
How does meiosis keep track of homologs and reduce the genome by half? Know these answers and more as we navigate the steps of meiosis I. This lesson will be tetradical!
12. Meiosis II: Definition, Stages & Comparison to Meiosis I
Behold round two of meiotic cell division! You'll see how meiosis II keeps the genome intact and gives the final push to produce haploid gametes, which make the world go round.
13. Nondisjunction & Aneuploidy: Definition & Examples
Learn why proper chromosome segregation is essential during meiosis. We'll see how having an extra chromosome can lead to Down Syndrome and also examine the consequences of having too few chromosomes. Disruptions to the delicate balance of cell division can have far-reaching effects.
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