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- Become familiar with the theory of evolution.
- Describe the evidence for evolution.
- Understand how to determine the rates of evolution.
- Discuss Hardy Weinberg equilibrium.
- Learn how natural selection and adaptation occur.
- List the different types of natural selection.
- Compare and contrast allopatric and sympatric speciation.
- Describe the prezygotic and postzygotic barriers to speciation.
- Learn how random mutation can lead to genetic variability.
- Take a look at peppered moths as an example of rapid adaptation.
- Understand how artificial selection affects evolution.
1. Theories of Evolution: Lamarck vs. Darwin
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Charles Darwin each had their own theories of evolution. Explore the principles of Lamarckian and Darwinian evolution in population genetics, using flying hamsters as examples.
2. Evidence for Evolution: Paleontology, Biogeography, Embryology, Comparative Anatomy & Molecular Biology
There is much support for the theory of evolution. This evidence comes from a variety of scientific fields and provides information that helps us trace changes in species over time. In this lesson, we'll look at this evidence and explore how it supports the theory of evolution.
3. Rates of Evolution: Punctuated Equilibrium & Molecular Clock Hypothesis
In general, evolution is a very long process. But rates of evolution can be different for different organisms. In this video lesson, you will identify how scientists study rates of evolution and fill in some of the missing 'steps' in the fossil record.
4. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium I: Overview
The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium represents the conditions necessary to predict the frequency of certain genotypes within a population. Explore the five criteria of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and their importance in population genetics.
5. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium II: The Equation
The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation helps in analyzing and understanding the gene pool of a population. Learn about this equation, including the variables it represents and where to find these variables, understand alleles and genotypes, and explore the significance of allelic and genotypic frequencies.
6. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium III: Evolutionary Agents
Learn about the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and how it is used to determine if a particular population is in equilibrium. Understand the role of the evolutionary agent with two examples, the genetic drift, and the term population bottleneck.
7. Natural Selection & Adaptation: Definition, Theory & Examples
Evolutionary fitness is a trait's ability to change the contribution of offspring by an individual for the next generation. Explore natural selection, adaption, and the different traits that determine fitness in this lesson.
8. Natural Selection: Definition, Types & Examples
Natural selection is a process in the evolution and adaptation of organisms to increase primary characteristics. Learn about the process of natural selection, the different types of natural selection, and the concept of polymorphism.
9. Speciation: Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation
A species is a particular group of organisms. Speciation is the process of a species splitting into new species. Discover the two different types of speciation - allopatric or geographic speciation, and sympatric speciation.
10. Prezygotic Reproductive Barriers & Speciation: Definition & Examples
Prezygotic barriers prevent the fertilization of an egg cell. Explore the types of prezygotic barriers - spatial isolation, temporal isolation, mechanical isolation, gametic isolation, and behavioral isolation.
11. Postzygotic Reproductive Barriers: Definition & Examples
Postzygotic reproductive barriers reduce the reproductive capacity of hybrid offspring. Discover the three types of postzygotic barriers - hybrid zygote abnormality, hybrid infertility, and low hybrid viability.
12. Genetic Variability and Random Mutation
Evolution is driven by variation among populations. The amount of variability determines how well a population can adapt to environmental changes, while random mutations can provide new variations that help a population adapt to unexpected changes.
13. An Example of Rapid Adaptation: The Peppered Moths
Normally, adaptations occur over thousands or millions of years. However, drastic changes in the environment can shorten the time period in which a change comes about. In such cases, we can learn a lot about the evolutionary process and how natural selection drives it forward.
14. Artificial Selection in Evolution
Humans have been selectively breeding for desirable traits in plants and animals for a long time. This artificial selection allows for a lot of control in the breeding process but can also lead to unintended mutations within a population of organisms.
15. Founder Effect: Example & Definition
The founder effect is defined as reduced variations in genetics among a small subset from a larger population. Learn more about the logic behind the founder effect, and learn about how the founder effect and global founder effect work by considering some of the provided examples.
16. Habitat Fragmentation: Effects, Definition & Causes
Civilization development, such as roads and housing, have conflicted with nature for thousands of years and also has had a signficant impact on the environment. Learn about this process of separating organisms from their resources called habitat fragmentation, the dire implications for the habitat and biodiversity, and potential solutions.
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