About This Chapter
Genetics and Heredity - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
While we know that DNA holds all the information necessary for life, how does that information get passed on to our offspring? In this chapter, our instructors will show you all the details of genetics and heredity. You'll take a look at Gregor Mendel's famous experiments with peas, discovering the two basic laws of genetic inheritance he found. You'll learn to use Punnett squares to determine offspring's phenotypes using an example study with flying hamsters. You'll also see some exceptions to Mendel's basic rules and delve into the complexities of human genetics. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- Mendel's laws of inheritance
- How to use Punnett squares
- How human genes are inherited
- Exceptions to simple inheritance
|Overview of Genetics||Get an overview of how genetics works, looking at cultivation and breeding over thousands of years.|
|Properties of Alleles||Understand dominant and recessive genotypes and phenotypes through an example study.|
|Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation||See how homologous chromosomes separate during reproduction.|
|Application of Mendel's First Law||Learn how to use Punnett squares to understand genotypes and phenotypes.|
|Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment||Discover the random nature of genetic inheritance.|
|Application of Mendel's Second Law||Explore independent assortment using Punnett square diagrams.|
|Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete Dominance||Understand how some genes express at the same time or partially.|
|Exceptions to Independent Assortment: Sex Linked and Sex Limited Traits||Look at how some genes rely on their chromosomal location.|
|Chromosomal Linkage and Crossing Over||Learn about the complexities of linked genes and recombinant chromosomes.|
|Human Genetics and Model Organisms||Discover how scientists have learned about human genetics through other organisms on Earth.|
1. Genetics: Heredity, Traits & Chromosomes
We view manipulation of genes in our crops and livestock as a recent development. Yet, man has been manipulating the genetic makeup of his food for thousands of years through cultivation and breeding. This lesson will begin to help you understand how genetics works.
2. Properties of Alleles
What is a dominant phenotype and how will it affect Adrian's flying hamster research? Tune in as he studies homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and the phenotypes they produce.
3. Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation
Breaking up is a hard thing to do, but homologous chromosomes always go their separate way. What effect does chromosome segregation have on genetics? We look once more to Adrian's flying hamsters for answers.
4. Application of Mendel's First Law
Hollywood Squares? No, it's Punnett Squares! Those wacky diagrams are a geneticist's best friend. See how they turn geneticists into soothsayers, predicting the genotypic and phenotypic future.
5. Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment
Understanding how Mendel's law of independent assortment describes inheritance of genes is as easy as flipping a coin. Grab a few coins, cue up the video and see how.
6. Mendel's Dihybrid Cross Example: Practice & Ratio
Oh no! Twice the genes and sixteen genotypes - a dihybrid cross seems overwhelming to understand. Never fear though, Punnett squares will save the day!
7. Watson & Crick Model of DNA
This lesson will review the Watson & Crick model of DNA and how it applies to our understanding of genetic material. By the end you will understand what Watson and Crick discovered and explain what its structure looks like.
8. Oswald Avery: Experiment & Discovery
Oswald Avery was an amazing scientist who was instrumental in our understanding of DNA. Learn more about this incredible sexagenarian's work in the 1940s.
9. The Hershey-Chase Experiment
In this lesson we will discuss the Hershey-Chase experiment, a simple but powerful experiment that helped prove that DNA was genetic material. Hershey and Chase used a phage, or a virus that infects bacteria, and E. coli to answer their question.
10. Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete Dominance
Have you ever wondered what it means if someone is a universal donor or acceptor of blood? See how genetic interactions play a key role in this trait.
11. Exceptions to Independent Assortment: Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited Traits
More men are color blind compared women. But often, not every brother, cousin or uncle in a family tree is color blind. Why not? How can genetics explain this seemingly complex inheritance pattern?
12. Crossing Over & Gene Linkage: Definition, Importance & Results
During this latest development of his flying hamster experiments, Adrian must learn about linked genes and recombinant chromosomes to unlock the mystery of the fire-breathing hamster. In this lesson, you'll look at another exception to Mendel's law of independent assortment.
13. Human Genetics: Multifactorial Traits & Model Organisms
How do we study human genetics when most traits arise from multiple genes? It's certainly more complicated that drawing a simple Punnett square. Never fear, for model organisms are here!
14. Manipulating Heritable Information
In this lesson, we'll be learning different strategies that scientists use to change genetic information in cells and organisms. We'll explore how scientists do this and some common applications.
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