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Ch 14: AP Biology: Genetics and Heredity

About This Chapter

Watch genetics and heredity video lessons and learn Mendel's laws, Punnett squares, chromosomal inheritance, and more. These lessons are just a portion of our AP Biology course.

Genetics and Heredity - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

While we know that DNA holds all the information necessary for life, how does that information get passed on to our offspring? In this chapter, our instructors will show you all the details of genetics and heredity. You'll take a look at Gregor Mendel's famous experiments with peas, discovering the two basic laws of genetic inheritance he found. You'll learn to use Punnett squares to determine offspring's phenotypes using an example study with flying hamsters. You'll also see some exceptions to Mendel's basic rules and delve into the complexities of human genetics. This chapter is designed to teach you:

  • Mendel's laws of inheritance
  • How to use Punnett squares
  • How human genes are inherited
  • Exceptions to simple inheritance

VideoObjective
Overview of GeneticsGet an overview of how genetics works, looking at cultivation and breeding over thousands of years.
Properties of AllelesUnderstand dominant and recessive genotypes and phenotypes through an example study.
Mendel's First Law: The Law of SegregationSee how homologous chromosomes separate during reproduction.
Application of Mendel's First LawLearn how to use Punnett squares to understand genotypes and phenotypes.
Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent AssortmentDiscover the random nature of genetic inheritance.
Application of Mendel's Second LawExplore independent assortment using Punnett square diagrams.
Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete DominanceUnderstand how some genes express at the same time or partially.
Exceptions to Independent Assortment: Sex Linked and Sex Limited TraitsLook at how some genes rely on their chromosomal location.
Chromosomal Linkage and Crossing OverLearn about the complexities of linked genes and recombinant chromosomes.
Human Genetics and Model OrganismsDiscover how scientists have learned about human genetics through other organisms on Earth.

14 Lessons in Chapter 14: AP Biology: Genetics and Heredity
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Genetics: Heredity, Traits & Chromosomes

1. Genetics: Heredity, Traits & Chromosomes

We view manipulation of genes in our crops and livestock as a recent development. Yet, man has been manipulating the genetic makeup of his food for thousands of years through cultivation and breeding. This lesson will begin to help you understand how genetics works.

Properties of Alleles

2. Properties of Alleles

What is a dominant phenotype and how will it affect Adrian's flying hamster research? Tune in as he studies homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and the phenotypes they produce.

Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation

3. Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation

Breaking up is a hard thing to do, but homologous chromosomes always go their separate way. What effect does chromosome segregation have on genetics? We look once more to Adrian's flying hamsters for answers.

Application of Mendel's First Law

4. Application of Mendel's First Law

Hollywood Squares? No, it's Punnett Squares! Those wacky diagrams are a geneticist's best friend. See how they turn geneticists into soothsayers, predicting the genotypic and phenotypic future.

Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment

5. Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment

Understanding how Mendel's law of independent assortment describes inheritance of genes is as easy as flipping a coin. Grab a few coins, cue up the video and see how.

Mendel's Dihybrid Cross Example: Practice & Ratio

6. Mendel's Dihybrid Cross Example: Practice & Ratio

Oh no! Twice the genes and sixteen genotypes - a dihybrid cross seems overwhelming to understand. Never fear though, Punnett squares will save the day!

Watson & Crick Model of DNA

7. Watson & Crick Model of DNA

This lesson will review the Watson & Crick model of DNA and how it applies to our understanding of genetic material. By the end you will understand what Watson and Crick discovered and explain what its structure looks like.

Oswald Avery: Experiment & Discovery

8. Oswald Avery: Experiment & Discovery

Oswald Avery was an amazing scientist who was instrumental in our understanding of DNA. Learn more about this incredible sexagenarian's work in the 1940s.

The Hershey-Chase Experiment

9. The Hershey-Chase Experiment

In this lesson we will discuss the Hershey-Chase experiment, a simple but powerful experiment that helped prove that DNA was genetic material. Hershey and Chase used a phage, or a virus that infects bacteria, and E. coli to answer their question.

Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete Dominance

10. Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete Dominance

Have you ever wondered what it means if someone is a universal donor or acceptor of blood? See how genetic interactions play a key role in this trait.

Exceptions to Independent Assortment: Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited Traits

11. Exceptions to Independent Assortment: Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited Traits

More men are color blind compared women. But often, not every brother, cousin or uncle in a family tree is color blind. Why not? How can genetics explain this seemingly complex inheritance pattern?

Crossing Over & Gene Linkage: Definition, Importance & Results

12. Crossing Over & Gene Linkage: Definition, Importance & Results

During this latest development of his flying hamster experiments, Adrian must learn about linked genes and recombinant chromosomes to unlock the mystery of the fire-breathing hamster. In this lesson, you'll look at another exception to Mendel's law of independent assortment.

Human Genetics: Multifactorial Traits & Model Organisms

13. Human Genetics: Multifactorial Traits & Model Organisms

How do we study human genetics when most traits arise from multiple genes? It's certainly more complicated that drawing a simple Punnett square. Never fear, for model organisms are here!

Manipulating Heritable Information

14. Manipulating Heritable Information

In this lesson, we'll be learning different strategies that scientists use to change genetic information in cells and organisms. We'll explore how scientists do this and some common applications.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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