About This Chapter
Inorganic Chemistry Review - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
If you want to study biology, you have to know some chemistry first. In this chapter, we'll review the important fundamentals of inorganic chemistry, from bonds between atoms to the laws of thermodynamics. You'll see how chemistry concepts are important to biological processes, like the autoionization of water and osmosis across a cell membrane. This chapter is divided into smaller lessons so you can study bonds, atoms, solutions, and chemical reactions one video at a time. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- The fundamentals of atoms and bonding
- How to balance chemical equations
- The basic laws of energy
- Chemistry concepts that are important in biology
|What Are Elements?||Understand what elements are, how to write them as symbols, and how they are the building blocks of all matter.|
|The Foundational Elements of Life||Learn about the elements that are most important to life on Earth, especially hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon.|
|The Atom||See the protons, neutrons, and electrons that make up atoms and how atoms look for different elements.|
|The Electron Shell||Explore how electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom and what their character means for chemical reactions.|
|Chemical Bonds I: Covalent||Look at how bonds can be formed between atoms when they share electrons.|
|Chemical Bonds II: Ionic||Examine the type of bond that occurs when atoms lose and gain electrons.|
|Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent||Understand how to predict how two atoms will interact and calculate polarity of a bond.|
|Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen||Learn about how salt dissolves in water in order to see hydrogen bonds in action.|
|Properties of Water||See why ice floats and other amazing properties of water that help sustain life on Earth.|
|Solutions, Solute, and Solvents||Explore what it means for a solute to have a certain concentration within a solution.|
|Osmosis, Diffusion, and Saturation||Look at these ways in which substances can move from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration.|
|Acids and Bases||Examine the pH scale and learn what is being measured in an acid or a base.|
|The Laws of Thermodynamics||Understand how energy works in our world and within smaller systems in our world.|
|How to Write and Balance Chemical Reactions||Get a primer on writing and balancing chemical equations.|
|Redox (Oxidation-Reduction) Reactions: Definitions and Examples||Learn about this special type of reaction and its role in biological processes.|
|Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers||Examine the pH of blood to learn about weak acids and bases and the role of buffering agents.|
1. What Are Elements?
Look around you. What do you see? Elements are everywhere. They are the building blocks of all matter on Earth. In this lesson, we will discuss what an element is, how elements are written as symbols, and how elements are the building blocks of all matter.
2. The Foundational Elements of Life
Living things are complex products of their environments. They are made of a number of different natural elements, many of which are essential to survival. Because of this, they are considered foundational elements and they support life on Earth as we know it.
3. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
4. The Electron Shell
You may be familiar with the role of electrons in electrical devices, but did you know that electrons also determine the chemical reactivity of everything around you?
5. Chemical Bonds I: Covalent
Mom always said that sharing is caring. This lesson will explore how electrons affect the chemical reactivity of atoms and specifically the merits of sharing electrons.
6. Chemical Bonds II: Ionic
Did you know that the scientific name for table salt is sodium chloride? Find out how sodium and chlorine atoms come together to form your favorite seasoning.
7. Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent
Are you confused about how you can tell what kind of bond two atoms will form? This lesson will help you understand the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds as well as how to predict how two atoms will interact.
8. Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen
This lesson defines and discusses important concepts behind hydrogen bonding. You'll learn when and why these bonds occur and which atoms are often involved.
9. Properties of Water
Why does ice float? Why can water rise on its own against gravity in a small tube? Find out how these mysterious properties of water can be explained by hydrogen bonds.
10. Solutions, Solutes, and Solvents
Oh no! Your friend Ben just drank chili oil on a dare, and now his mouth is burning. Should he drink the ice water or vegetable oil to cool his mouth? Quick. Watch this lesson if you aren't sure.
11. Osmosis, Diffusion and Saturation
The cells in our bodies are in constant flux through the processes of osmosis and diffusion. Learn about how saturation levels force change, and why we're lucky they do.
12. Acids and Bases
Have you ever wondered how we measure the acidity of liquids? Check out this lesson to see how acids and bases are measured on a pH scale and how they relate to neutral solutions, such as water.
13. The Laws of Thermodynamics
Learn about the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Find out how energy is generated, how it converts from one form to another, and what happens to energy in a closed system.
14. Chemical Reactions and Balancing Chemical Equations
In this lesson, you'll learn how to balance a chemical reaction equation using the conservation of matter law. You'll also learn how to write both word and formula equations, what the subscripts after a letter mean and what the numbers in front of compounds mean.
15. Basic Properties of Chemical Reactions
Learn how about the various components of a chemical reaction, and how those components function. Use this lesson to understand the basic properties of different kinds of chemical reactions.
16. Redox (Oxidation-Reduction) Reactions: Definitions and Examples
This short video will explain oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox reactions for short. The focus is on how electrons are transferred during redox reactions. Learn some neat mnemonic devices to help you remember when an atom is oxidizing or reducing.
17. Hydrolysis and Dehydration: Definitions & Examples
Water is an important component of cellular processes. Two of these processes, dehydration and hydrolysis, help your body build large molecules from small ones and break down large ones into usable components.
18. What Are Ionic Compounds? - Definition, Examples & Reactions
Ionic compounds are a common, yet special type of chemical compound. In this video lesson, you will learn about their formation and structure and see examples of compounds formed by ions.
19. Anabolism and Catabolism: Definitions & Examples
Metabolism breaks down large molecules like food into usable energy. This energy drives bodily processes critical to survival. In this video lesson, you will learn about the two forms of metabolism that break down and build up molecules and see examples of each.
20. Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers
This lesson covers both strong and weak acids and bases, using human blood as an example for the discussion. Other concepts discussed included conjugate acids and bases, the acidity constant, and buffer systems within the blood.
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