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AP Biology: Laboratory - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Follow along as the professional instructors who lead these lessons outline laboratory equipment, techniques and experiments used to demonstrate key biology concepts. Whether you want to bolster your understanding of topics covered in the previous chapters or take an experiential approach to the subject matter, use the lessons included here to learn how to do the following:
- Predict outcomes of genetic crosses
- Calculate genotype frequencies
- Identify factors affecting photosynthesis
- Examine cellular respiration rates
- Perform gene transfer techniques
- Measure chemical reaction rates
|Lab 1: Artificial Selection||Learn how to cross-pollinate Wisconsin Fast Plants. Study differences in trichrome distribution between the first and second generations.|
|Lab 2: Mathematical Modeling: Hardy-Weinberg||Practice calculating allele and genotype frequencies using Hardy-Weinberg equations. Understand how changes in allele frequencies can drive evolution.|
|Lab 3: Comparing DNA Sequences to Understand Evolutionary Relationships with BLAST||Explore the uses of the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) to compare gene sequences of different species. Practice drawing a cladogram to demonstrate their relatedness.|
|Lab 4: Diffusion and Osmosis||Investigate the processes of diffusion and osmosis in a semi-permeable membrane. Identify the effect of solute concentration on water potential in plants.|
|Lab 5: Photosynthesis||Explore the uses of the floating leaf disk procedure to indirectly measure and identify variables affecting the rate of photosynthesis.|
|Lab 6: Cellular Respiration||Study the respiratory rate of such organisms as peas and small insects.|
|Lab 7: Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis||Explore the differences between mitosis and meiosis in both plants and animals. Investigate the sexual lifecycle of the fungus Sordaria fimicola.|
|Lab 8: Biotechnology: Bacterial Transformation||Study the importance of DNA plasmids in genetic engineering by performing gene transfer techniques on Escherichia coli.|
|Lab 9: Biotechnology: Restriction Enzyme Analysis of DNA||Learn how to analyze DNA fragments using restriction endonucleases and gel electrophoresis.|
|Lab 10: Energy Dynamics||Examine procedures for measuring the transfer of energy among organisms.|
|Lab 11: Transpiration||Investigate the movement of water within a plant and find out how to calculate transpiration rate.|
|Lab 12: Fruit Fly Behavior||Observe the behavior of fruit flies when moved toward or away from stimuli, including light, acidity, sound or temperature.|
|Lab 13: Enzyme Activity||Learn to measure the conversion rate of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen as the enzyme peroxidase is added to an experiment.|
1. Artificial Selection: Biology Lab
Natural selection is a major way that evolution works, but what happens when humans get involved? In this lesson, we'll see how humans influence the characteristics of a population through artificial selection.
2. Mathematical Modeling - Hardy-Weinberg: Biology Lab
What is a scientific model? How can we create them? How can they be used in biology? In this lesson, you'll answer all of these questions as you explore how a model called the Hardy-Weinberg theorem can be used to predict how a population will change over time.
3. Comparing DNA Sequences to Understand Evolutionary Relationships with BLAST: Biology Lab
About 90% of human DNA is the same as mouse DNA, and that's a good thing. In this lesson, you'll explore how scientists use genetic similarities to determine how living things are related.
4. Diffusion and Osmosis: Biology Lab
Molecules are always on the move thanks to kinetic energy. This energy makes diffusion and osmosis possible, two processes used by cells to maintain homeostasis. In this lab, we'll look how osmosis and diffusion work and what factors affect them.
5. Photosynthesis: Biology Lab
Plants and other organisms that have the pigment chlorophyll can do something that no other living creature can - capture light energy from the sun and use it to make chemical energy through photosynthesis. In this lab, we'll see how we can set up an experiment to measure the rate of this important process.
6. Cellular Respiration: Biology Lab
Oxygen is essential to life. Without this molecule, we would not be able to complete cellular respiration, the process which creates much of a cell's energy. This lab will explore how we can quantify this process by designing a procedure to measure respiration in germinating seeds.
7. Cell Division - Mitosis and Meiosis: Biology Lab
Organisms use cell division to replicate, grow, and, in the case of a process called meiosis, to make gametes for reproduction. This lab explores the processes of mitosis and meiosis through both physical and mathematical modeling.
8. Biotechnology - Bacterial Transformation: Biology Lab
Genetic engineering is responsible for medicines, pest-resistance foods, and even denim. In this lesson, you'll explore the process of bacterial transformation, one way in which scientists use genetic engineering to move genes from organism to organism.
9. Biotechnology - Restriction Enzyme Analysis of DNA: Biology Lab
As any amateur sleuth knows, DNA is an important part of crime scene analysis. But why is that, and how is it used in the lab? This lesson will explore restriction enzymes analysis of DNA and how it's used to 'fingerprint' suspects in a crime.
10. Energy Dynamics: Biology Lab
Even young science students know that energy flows through an ecosystem, from the sun to producers to consumers. But what happens, exactly, to that energy? This laboratory explores ecosystem energy dynamics by creating a very simple food chain.
11. Transpiration: Biology Lab
Transpiration, movement of water from the roots to shoots of a plant, is crucial to a plant's ability to maintain homeostasis. This lab examines both the mechanism of transpiration and the effects of the environment on this important process.
12. Fruit Fly Behavior: Biology Lab
Drosophila melanogaster, the common fruit fly, is a model organism used in many types of biology experiments. In this lesson, you'll explore how to design an experiment to see how this animal responds to an environmental stimulus.
13. Enzyme Activity: Biology Lab
The amount of energy necessary to start a biochemical reaction is called activation energy. Special proteins called enzymes lower activation energy, allowing life to exist. In this lesson, explore how enzymes work and see what conditions affect them.
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Other chapters within the AP Biology: Exam Prep course
- Scientific Principles
- AP Biology: The Origin of Life on Earth
- AP Biology: Evolution Overview
- AP Biology: Inorganic Chemistry Review
- AP Biology: Organic Chemistry Review
- AP Biology: Enzymatic Biochemistry
- AP Biology: Cell Biology
- AP Biology: Requirements of Biological Systems
- AP Biology: Cell Division
- AP Biology: Metabolic Biochemistry
- AP Biology: DNA and RNA Overview
- AP Biology: DNA Replication
- AP Biology: The Transcription and Translation Process
- AP Biology: Genetics and Heredity
- AP Biology: Genetic Mutations
- AP Biology: Phylogeny and the Classification of Organisms
- AP Biology: Plant Biology
- AP Biology: Plant Reproduction and Growth
- AP Biology: Animal Reproduction and Development
- AP Biology: Anatomy and Physiology of Reproductive Systems
- AP Biology: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems
- AP Biology: The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems
- AP Biology: Ecology Overview
- AP Biology: Animal Behavior
- AP Biology: Basic Molecular Biology Laboratory Techniques
- AP Biology: Analyzing Scientific Data
- AP Biology Exam Information
- AP Biology Flashcards