About This Chapter
Metabolic Biochemistry - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
One of the fundamental roles of our cells is to make energy, but the process by which this happens is rather complicated. In this chapter, you'll learn all about cellular respiration, from glycolysis to the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain. You'll see how the molecules react with each other and what structures help create chemical energy for the cell to use. You'll also learn about photosynthesis, which is how plant cells make energy. You'll see how the two are related and, in some ways, opposite. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- The steps of cellular respiration
- Anaerobic respiration in cells
- The process of photosynthesis
- The molecular reactions and products of respiration
|Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells||Understand the basic process by which cells convert organic compounds into energy in the form of ATP.|
|Redox Reactions and Electron Carriers in Cellular Respiration: Definitions and Examples||See which molecules are used as electron carriers to store energy via redox reactions.|
|Glycolysis Cycle: Steps, Products, and Importance||Learn about the first part of cellular respiration and what reactions take place.|
|The Citric Acid (Kreb) Cycle: Products and Steps||Explore how the products from glycolysis are used in this second stage of cellular respiration.|
|The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps||Study the final stage of cellular respiration in which the products from the first two stages become usable cellular energy.|
|Lactic Acid and Alcoholic Fermentation: Comparison, Contrast, and Examples||Understand how cells make energy when they don't have enough oxygen.|
|Chlorophyll: Absorbing Light Energy for Photosynthesis||See how the pigment chlorophyll helps plants gain energy from sunlight.|
|Photolysis and the Light Reactions: Definitions, Steps, Reactants, and Products||Learn about the first part of photosynthesis, in which electrons move through photosystems.|
|Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis: The Calvin-Benson Cycle||Study the second part of photosynthesis, in which chemical reactions produce sugars for plants.|
1. Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells
Watch this short video to learn the basics about converting organic compounds into ATP, also known as cellular respiration. We'll look at an overview of the process.
2. Redox Reactions & Electron Carriers in Cellular Respiration: Definitions and Examples
Redox reactions play an important role in cellular respiration. In this lesson, you will see how NAD and FAD are used as electron carriers to temporarily store energy during cellular respiration.
3. Glycolysis Pathway: Steps, Products & Importance
Cellular respiration creates chemical energy in the form of ATP from the food we eat and the air we breathe. In this lesson, we'll learn about the first part of this process, glycolysis.
4. The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we return to the process of cellular respiration for the second act of creating energy from food. In this act, products from glycolysis feed into the next stage, the citric acid cycle.
5. The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we'll learn about the finale of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses products from the first two acts of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to complete the chemical reaction that turns our food into usable cellular energy.
6. Lactic Acid & Alcoholic Fermentation: Comparison, Contrast & Examples
When in an anaerobic environment, some cells can use glycolysis and fermentation to keep producing ATP. Lactic acid fermentation happens in our muscle cells when we are exercising feverishly, while alcoholic fermentation is used in yeast cells and is what leads to beer, bread, and wine.
7. Chlorophyll: Absorbing Light Energy for Photosynthesis
Plants are clean, green, photosynthesizing machines. Using a specialized pigment called chlorophyll, plants are able to soak up energy from the sun and turn it into food. In this lesson, we'll start to learn why chlorophyll literally gets excited about a sunny day!
8. Photolysis and the Light Reactions: Definitions, Steps, Reactants & Products
In this lesson, we'll learn how electrons get excited during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, jumping off photosystem reaction centers like they were trampolines! In addition, we'll learn how the splitting of water creates reactants for this part of photosynthesis while creating a little fresh air for us.
9. Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis: The Calvin-Benson Cycle
Photosynthesis starts out using the energy from sunlight to get things started, but it ends with the dark reactions, which don't need sunshine to complete sugar production. In the Calvin cycle, ATP and NADPH from the light reactions are used to produce sugars.
10. Energy Transformation: Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration
In this lesson, explore how energy is converted between different forms during two biological processes: photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Learn how energy from the sun is harvested by plants and ultimately gives us the energy we need.
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