About This Chapter
Organic Chemistry Review - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
In order to study more complex biological concepts, you need to know your organic molecules. In this chapter, our instructors will explain the basics of organic chemistry. You'll learn about the molecular structure of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, focusing on how their chemical makeup informs their characteristics. You'll see why phospholipids are so important to cells and how long chain molecules are formed. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- The structure and function of carbohydrates and lipids
- The amino acids and peptide bonds that form proteins
- The unique nature of the phospholipid bilayer membrane
- The molecular structures essential to organic molecules
|Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups||Understand the parts of certain molecules that give them specific characteristics.|
|Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers||See how polymers are constructed from monomers on the molecular level.|
|Structure and Function of Carbohydrates||Learn about the three types of carbohydrates (sugars, starches, and fiber) through their chemical structure.|
|Structure and Function of Lipids||Take a look at the long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way fats, oils, and hormones act.|
|How a Phospholipid Bilayer is Both Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic||Discover the dual personality of cell membranes due to the nature of phospholipids.|
|Proteins I: Structure and Function||Understand the importance of proteins in our biological processes.|
|Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization, and Peptide Bonds||See how proteins are made up of amino acids and the bonds formed between them.|
|Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids||Learn the chemistry behind the intricate polypeptide chains of proteins.|
|Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary Structure||Take a look at the organization of proteins and how they form their unique shapes.|
|The Heterotroph Hypothesis||Discover this way to think about evolution and the formation of the earth.|
1. Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups
If you've ever wondered what gives vinegar that sour flavor, you may not realize that you have contemplated functional groups. View this lesson for an introduction to organic chemistry, functional groups and how they are part of your daily life.
2. Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers
From everyday man-made items like milk jugs and styrofoam to natural proteins and plant materials, the world is full of polymers! Check out this lesson to learn how polymers are constructed on a molecular level.
3. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.
4. Structure and Function of Lipids
Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.
5. Proteins I: Structure and Function
We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.
6. Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids
How do amino acids form the intricate polypeptide chains found in proteins? It's a matter of chemistry. Join glycine, a special amino acid, as she sizes up the other amino acids.
7. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds
In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.
8. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure
How is progressing through higher order protein structures like crafting an essay? In this lesson, you'll explore everything from quaternary structures to denaturation as we show how the different structures are intertwined.
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