About This Chapter
Phylogeny - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Phylogeny is a hypothesis as a result of the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms, meaning that we can classify organisms by looking at their evolutionary history. In this chapter, our instructors will explain the various ways biologists classify living things. You'll learn about the evolution of bacteria, protists, plants, fungi, animals, and humans. We've divided this chapter into smaller lessons, so you can learn about these concepts one video at a time. After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Describe the evolutionary history of various groups of organisms
- Explain the 3-domain and 6-kingdom classifications
- Draw or identify cladograms of evolutionary relationships
- Understand the importance of various groups in the evolution process
|Taxonomy: Classification and Naming of Living Things||Understand how biologists classify living things using the 3-domain and 6-kingdom systems.|
|Cladograms and Phylogenic Trees: Evolution Classifications||Take a look at these diagrams used to depict relations among organisms.|
|The Evolution of Prokaryotes: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria||See where the bacteria we have today came from.|
|The Evolution of Protists: Importance and Evolutionary History||Learn the history of these unicellular organisms and their role in evolution.|
|The Evolution of Plants and Fungi: Characteristics and Evolutionary History||Explore the differences between fungi and plants, including their divergence in evolution.|
|The Evolution of Animals: Importance and Evolutionary History||Study how we came to have billions of species of animals on the earth.|
|The Evolution of Humans: Characteristics and Evolutionary History||Examine the evolutionary progress of humankind, describing various stages along the way.|
1. Taxonomy: Classification and Naming of Living Things
The name you give to a living thing may be completely different than the name someone else uses. In science, we use a common naming system for all living things to avoid confusion. This lesson will explore the basics of our classification system.
2. Cladograms and Phylogenetic Trees: Evolution Classifications
Family trees help show how people are related to each other. Similarly, scientists use cladograms and phylogenetic trees to study the relationships between organisms.
3. The Evolution of Prokaryotes: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
The first living organisms on Earth were bacteria. These small organisms still exist today and are responsible for many things. In this lesson, we will explore both ancient bacteria and true bacteria.
4. The Evolution of Protists: Importance & Evolutionary History
Some organisms are very familiar. However, there are some that play vital roles in our lives that we don't even think about. We will look at a group of one of these unfamiliar kingdoms - protists.
5. The Evolution of Plants and Fungi: Characteristics & Evolutionary History
In early classification systems, plants and fungi were grouped together. While there are some similarities between these two kingdoms, there are some key differences that we will explore.
6. The Evolution of Animals: Importance & Evolutionary History
The animal kingdom ranges from simple organisms like sponges to complex organisms like humans. We will look at some defining characteristics of animals as well as examples of both invertebrates and vertebrates.
7. The Evolution of Humans: Characteristics & Evolutionary History
Just like other organisms, humans have changed over time. We will look at the evolution of humans as well as connections with our primate relatives, including Old World and New World primates.
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Other chapters within the AP Biology: Exam Prep course
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