About This Chapter
Plant Biology - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
While the plants around us may seem stationary and slow-growing, their biological processes are just as complicated as those in humans. In this chapter, you'll learn the basic structures of plants and how they perform jobs like food transportation, stem growth, and pollination. These video lessons will use diagrams to show you what the structures look like and examples to explain how certain processes work. You'll see the cellular composition of plants, from the cell-producing meristem to the water-transporting xylem. After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Explain how water and food move throughout a plant
- Describe the growth process in stems and roots
- Identify important structures in leaves
- Understand the pollination reproduction process
- Label a diagram with important plant structures
|Classification of Vascular, Nonvascular, Monocot, and Dicot Plants||Explore the basic classification of plants and the unique characteristics of each group.|
|Structure of Plant Stems: Vascular and Ground Tissue||Learn about this fundamental plant structure that provides transport from roots to leaves.|
|Apical Meristem and Primary Shoot System Growth||Understand the structures that allow plants to keep growing from the top.|
|Lateral Meristem and Secondary Shoot System Growth||Take a look at the structures that provide secondary growth in width.|
|Structure of Leaves: The Epidermis, Palisade, and Spongy Layers||Examine the layers of a leaf and the role of each structure.|
|Primary Root Tissue, Root Hairs, and the Plant Vascular Cylinder||See how roots provide support, food, and water to a growing plant.|
|Root System Growth: The Root Cap, Primary Roots, and Lateral Roots||Understand how roots grow as plants get bigger.|
|Nitrogen Fixation: Significance to Plants and Human||Explore how plants coexist with bacteria to gain usable nitrogen from the atmosphere.|
|Xylem: The Effect of Transpiration and Cohesion on Function||Learn about this type of vascular tissue that transports water throughout plants.|
|Phloem: The Pressure Flow Hypothesis of Food Movement||Take a look at how this vascular tissue uses pressure differences to transport food.|
|Flowers: Structure and Function of Male and Female Components||Examine the reproductive components of angiosperms and the function of each.|
|Methods of Pollination and Flower-Pollinator Relationships||See how plants reproduce through pollen exchange.|
1. Classification of Vascular, Nonvascular, Monocot & Dicot Plants
Plants may not seem like the most interesting things around, but they are definitely useful. In this lesson, we will explore the basic classification of plants and the unique characteristics of each group.
2. Structure of Plant Stems: Vascular and Ground Tissue
You can determine the age of a tree by looking at its rings. In this lesson, we will look at the basic structures of stems and explore what causes the rings in a tree trunk.
3. Apical Meristem & Primary Shoot System Growth
Just like humans, plants need to grow. In this lesson, you'll see how plant growth occurs at specific locations and how the height of the plant is increased.
4. Lateral Meristem & Secondary Shoot System Growth
Why do some plants experience a secondary growth? Why do some plants grow only in height but others grow in height and width? Discover the answers to these questions in this lesson.
5. Structure of Leaves: The Epidermis, Palisade and Spongy Layers
Leaves may look pretty in the fall when they are changing colors, but they also provide many necessary functions for plants. In this lesson, we will explore the structures and functions of leaves.
6. Primary Root Tissue, Root Hairs and the Plant Vascular Cylinder
Roots of plants can provide support, food and water. We will look at diagrams and photos to see the different parts of roots in order to explain these different functions.
7. Root System Growth: The Root Cap, Primary Roots & Lateral Roots
It is easy to see some plants get taller, but it is important to know that plants must also have a strong support that we cannot always see. Root growth helps plants survive and can happen in two ways.
8. Nitrogen Fixation: Significance to Plants and Humans
Almost 80% of our atmosphere is nitrogen, but we can't use it. We will look at how this unusable nitrogen is converted into a form we can use and why nitrogen is important to plants and humans.
9. Xylem: The Effect of Transpiration and Cohesion on Function
Roots absorb water and leaves release water, but how does water move up a plant? In this lesson, we will look at how this happens in vascular plants, including the importance of xylem, cohesion and transpiration in the process.
10. Phloem: The Pressure Flow Hypothesis of Food Movement
Leaves produce sugars and stems; roots and fruits use these sugars for energy. In this lesson, we will look at how these sugars move throughout vascular plants, including the importance of phloem and the pressure flow hypothesis in the process.
11. Flowers: Structure and Function of Male & Female Components
In this lesson, we'll look at the parts of a flower and learn their functions. These natural beauties provide indispensable services to the plants they adorn.
12. Methods of Pollination and Flower-Pollinator Relationships
Ever wonder why bees are attracted to specific flowers? We will look at why certain animals are drawn to certain plants and other methods of pollination in this lesson.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 160 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the AP Biology: Exam Prep course
- Scientific Principles
- AP Biology: The Origin of Life on Earth
- AP Biology: Evolution Overview
- AP Biology: Inorganic Chemistry Review
- AP Biology: Organic Chemistry Review
- AP Biology: Enzymatic Biochemistry
- AP Biology: Cell Biology
- AP Biology: Requirements of Biological Systems
- AP Biology: Cell Division
- AP Biology: Metabolic Biochemistry
- AP Biology: DNA and RNA Overview
- AP Biology: DNA Replication
- AP Biology: The Transcription and Translation Process
- AP Biology: Genetics and Heredity
- AP Biology: Genetic Mutations
- AP Biology: Phylogeny and the Classification of Organisms
- AP Biology: Plant Reproduction and Growth
- AP Biology: Animal Reproduction and Development
- AP Biology: Anatomy and Physiology of Reproductive Systems
- AP Biology: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems
- AP Biology: The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems
- AP Biology: Ecology Overview
- AP Biology: Animal Behavior
- AP Biology: Basic Molecular Biology Laboratory Techniques
- AP Biology: Analyzing Scientific Data
- AP Biology: Laboratory
- AP Biology Exam Information
- AP Biology Flashcards