About This Chapter
Plant Reproduction and Growth - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
While flowers and seeds are one way that plants reproduce, they have many ways to create new offspring during their complex life cycles. In this chapter, our instructors will show you the exciting life of plants. You'll see how they alternate forms between generations and how some plants live most of their life in one form or the other. You'll understand how different types of plants are able to reproduce and the methods by which they do so. You'll also take a look at how plants grow according to seasons, their environment, and chemical signals from within. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- The alternation of generations life cycle
- The reproductive mechanisms of different plants
- How plants respond to their environments
- How plants grow according to their type
|Alternation of Generations: The Gametophyte and the Sporophyte||Understand the basic life cycle of plants and how they differ from animals.|
|A Moss Life Cycle: Dominant Gametophyte||Take a look at how non-vascular mosses spend most of their lives with one set of genetic material.|
|A Fern Life Cycle: Plant Reproduction Without Flowers or Seeds||Explore how vascular ferns are able to reproduce without using seeds.|
|A Gymnosperm Life Cycle: Reproduction of Plants with 'Naked Seeds'||See how plants like pine trees reproduce with unprotected seeds.|
|An Angiosperm Life Cycle: Flowering Plant Reproduction||Examine the role of flowers and fruit in the plant life cycle.|
|Asexual Plant Reproduction: Vegetative Propagation and Bulbs||Study the ways that plants can reproduce without seeds, pollen, or flowers.|
|Tropisms: Phototropic, Geotropic, and Thigmotropic Plant Growth||Understand how certain plants respond to their environment.|
|Photoperiodicity: Short-day, Long-day, and Day-Neutral Plants||Take a look at the effect of the length of daylight on flowering plants.|
|Seasonal Growth Cycles: Perennial, Annual, and Biennial Plants||Explore the categories of plants that have different patterns of growth.|
|Plant Hormones: Chemical Control of Growth and Reproduction||See the chemical signals used to control growth and reproductive functions in plants.|
1. Alternation of Generations: The Gametophyte and Sporophyte
Even though many plants seem simple, they often have very complex life cycles. We will look at how plants alternate between different life stages as well as the terms used to describe these unique points in their life cycle.
2. A Moss Life Cycle: Dominant Gametophyte
Mosses are unique because they spend most of their lives with only one set of genetic material rather than the normal two sets. We will look at this cycle and how the alternation of generations takes place in these non-vascular plants.
3. A Fern Life Cycle: Plant Reproduction Without Flowers or Seeds
Ferns are able to reproduce without using seeds. We will look at how ferns reproduce as well as the pattern of alternating between diploid and haploid life stages.
4. A Gymnosperm Life Cycle: Reproduction of Plants with 'Naked Seeds'
Some plants, such as pine trees, are able to reproduce with unprotected seeds. We will look at the major structures involved in this form of alternation of generations in gymnosperms.
5. An Angiosperm Life Cycle: Flowering Plant Reproduction
When you think of how plants reproduce, you probably think of flowers. We will look at how flowering plants use specialized reproductive structures to complete an alternation of generations life cycle.
6. Asexual Plant Reproduction: Vegetative Propagation and Bulbs
Not all plants make attractive flowers in order to reproduce. Some plants will not make seeds and pollen either. These plants have other ways to create new offspring. We will look at a few key methods of vegetative propagation.
7. Tropisms: Phototropic, Geotropic and Thigmotropic Plant Growth
Animals aren't the only things that can respond to the environment. While plants may seem inanimate at times, they, too, can respond to the environment in order to better survive.
8. Photoperiodicity: Short-day, Long-day and Day-Neutral Plants
Ever wonder why some plants will bloom in the spring but others in the summer? The length of daylight can influence when a flower will bloom. We will look at how the amount of sunlight regulates when plants produce flowers.
9. Seasonal Growth Cycles: Perennial, Annual and Biennial Plants
We continue to grow and change throughout our entire lives, living through many seasons and years. Plants have different patterns of growth and development regarding seasons, which we will look at in this lesson.
10. Plant Hormones: Chemical Control of Growth and Reproduction
We most often think of hormones as things that control our actions and development. However, even plants have these chemicals to help regulate growth and reproduction.
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