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Ch 21: AP Biology - Circulatory & Respiratory Systems: Help & Review

About This Chapter

The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory and Musculoskeletal Systems chapter of this AP Biology Help and Review course is the simplest way to master the systems of the human body. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure students learn the essentials of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory and musculoskeletal systems.

Who's it for?

Anyone who needs help learning or mastering AP Biology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn AP Biology. Among those who would benefit are:

  • Students who have fallen behind in understanding the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory and musculoskeletal systems
  • Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
  • Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
  • Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
  • Students who need an efficient way to learn about the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory and musculoskeletal systems
  • Students who struggle to understand their teachers
  • Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources

How it works:

  • Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
  • Press play and watch the video lesson.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory and musculoskeletal systems chapter exam.

Why it works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory and musculoskeletal systems chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory and musculoskeletal systems question. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students will review:

This chapter helps students review the concepts in a circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory and musculoskeletal systems unit of a standard AP Biology course. Topics covered include:

  • Connective and epithelium tissues
  • Muscular and skeletal systems
  • The human vascular system
  • The heart, hemoglobin and red blood cells
  • The human respiratory system and gas exchange
  • Upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts

21 Lessons in Chapter 21: AP Biology - Circulatory & Respiratory Systems: Help & Review
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Multicellular Organisms, Tissues and Epithelium

1. Multicellular Organisms, Tissues and Epithelium

Multicellular organisms, like humans, comprise groups of specialized cells working together. Explore the four levels of cellular organization that form an organism and discover one of the four main types of human tissue: epithelial tissue.

Types of Connective Tissue

2. Types of Connective Tissue

Connective tissue gives the body and its organs structure, shape, and support. Explore six different types of connective tissue, the cells that form them, and their unique purposes within the human body.

Skeletal System and Muscular System

3. Skeletal System and Muscular System

The skeletal system provides a framework for muscles and tissues, protects the internal organs, and gives shape to the body, while the muscular system allows movement of the body, digestion, circulation, stability, and posture. Discover the major components of the skeletal system and the types of muscles in the muscular system.

Circulatory System I: Types of Circulatory Systems

4. Circulatory System I: Types of Circulatory Systems

Discover the different types of circulatory systems that exist in the animal kingdom. Explore topics such as nutrients and waste, gastrovascular cavities, open circulatory systems, closed circulatory systems, and how blood flow is manipulated.

Circulatory System II: The Human Vascular System

5. Circulatory System II: The Human Vascular System

The human vascular system is the network of blood vessels within the body. Discover the three main types of blood vessels, explore the path of blood movement through the body, and learn about the process of angiogenesis and the role of the lymphatic system.

Circulatory System III: The Heart

6. Circulatory System III: The Heart

The job of a heart is to pump blood and other fluids through the circulatory system, but not all hearts have the same shape and structure. Explore different heart structures of various creatures, including humans.

Circulatory System IV: Red Blood Cells

7. Circulatory System IV: Red Blood Cells

Red blood cells are an important part of the circulatory system with only one job: to transport carbon dioxide and oxygen between the body's lungs and all other cells. Learn about this process and understand red blood cells, including how they are produced and how they function.

Circulatory System V: Hemoglobin

8. Circulatory System V: Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin is vital to keeping the human circulatory system working properly. Learn about the structure of hemoglobin and why oxygen in the blood binds to the hemoglobin molecule.

Gas Exchange in the Human Respiratory System

9. Gas Exchange in the Human Respiratory System

Lungs are responsible for gas exchange, which requires a large respiratory surface area. Learn about the parts of the human respiratory system and how blood becomes oxygenated.

Digestive System I: The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

10. Digestive System I: The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

The upper gastrointestinal tract, which starts the digestive process, includes the mouth, throat, and stomach. Learn more about the role of the upper gastrointestinal tract of the human digestive system.

Digestive System II: The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract

11. Digestive System II: The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract

The lower gastrointestinal tract includes the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, large intestine, and rectum. Learn about the role of the lower gastrointestinal tract in the human digestive system.

Excretory System

12. Excretory System

The excretory system is responsible for removing wastes in the body in order to regulate the body's chemical composition. Discover the roles of the kidney, liver, bladder, and other parts of the excretory system in eliminating wastes and toxins in the body.

Hypoglossal Nerve: Function, Palsy & Damage

13. Hypoglossal Nerve: Function, Palsy & Damage

This lesson covers the function and structure of the hypoglossal nerve. We will also cover some of the effects of damage to this system, including paralysis.

Mesoderm Layer: Definition, Development & Formation

14. Mesoderm Layer: Definition, Development & Formation

Once a fertilized egg forms a hollow ball of cells called a blastula, the blastula will enter germ layer formation and form a 3-layered embryo called a gastula. The mesoderm is the middle of the three embryonic tissue layers. Examine the definition, development and formation of the mesoderm layer.

Renal Artery: Definition & Function

15. Renal Artery: Definition & Function

Most people have two renal arteries, which are important blood vessels transporting oxygenated blood into each of the kidneys so they can function properly. In this lesson, discover the path this oxygenated blood takes from your heart to the kidneys.

Ureter: Definition & Function

16. Ureter: Definition & Function

In this lesson, you will explore the function of the paired ureters, as well as how their structure enables them to transfer urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

What Are Blood Clots: Symptoms & Causes

17. What Are Blood Clots: Symptoms & Causes

In this lesson, you will learn how blood clots form. You will discover why blood sometimes clots when it shouldn't, and you will learn some of the symptoms associated with abnormal blood clots. A quiz at the end of the lesson will test your knowledge.

Chyme: Definition & Function

18. Chyme: Definition & Function

In this lesson we will learn what chyme is and where it's produced as well as how it's produced, the function it serves, and what factors influence the creation of this substance.

Afferent Arteriole: Definition & Function

19. Afferent Arteriole: Definition & Function

An afferent arteriole connects the renal artery to the glomerular capillary network in your kidney's nephron, starting the filtering process. It also takes action that controls blood pressure.

Efferent Arteriole: Definition & Function

20. Efferent Arteriole: Definition & Function

In this lesson, we'll review blood flow and the pressure differences that allow physiological processes in the kidneys to occur. We'll also define what an arteriole is and why it is referred to as an efferent arteriole in the urinary system.

Do Humans Have an Open or Closed Circulatory System?

21. Do Humans Have an Open or Closed Circulatory System?

Our circulatory system provides a network through which our blood flows constantly. However, there are two types of circulatory systems in the animal kingdom: open and closed. Which do humans have? Read on to find out.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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