About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering AP Biology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn AP Biology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding the nervous, immune and endocrine systems
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about the nervous, immune and endocrine systems
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the nervous, immune and endocrine systems chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the nervous, immune and endocrine systems chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any nervous, immune and endocrine systems question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a nervous, immune and endocrine systems unit of a standard AP Biology course. Topics covered include:
- Central and peripheral nervous systems
- Parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
- The brain and cerebral cortex
- Acquired and innate immunity
- Antibiotics and pathogens
1. Homeostasis and Temperature Regulation in Humans
Humans, as well as other mammals and birds, need a stable body temperature. Learn how temperature is regulated in humans by exploring homeostasis, thermoregulation, and hypothalamus, and also understand the difference between endotherms and ectotherms.
2. Homeostasis of Glucose Levels: Hormonal Control and Diabetes
The human body uses hormones as regulators of glucose levels leading to a state of homeostasis. Learn about the homeostasis of glucose and how hormones control blood sugar levels to prevent diabetes.
3. Functions of the Nervous System
The nervous system helps animals interact with their respective environments. Learn more about how the nervous system functions to collect input from the body's senses and external environment, processes and interprets sensory input, and responds appropriately to the sensory input.
4. The Structure and Function of Neurons
The structure of neurons contains two main components, dendrites and axons, that polarize and depolarize cells. Those two components are responsible for the function of sending signals among cells. This lesson extrapolates on those elements, in addition to synapses, and it also explores polarization and depolarization processes.
5. The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system is composed of the sensory and motor neurons of the body. Discover how sensory neurons, such as photoreceptors and thermoreceptors, collect sensory input and sent it to the brain, as well as how motor neurons transmit signals to responsive tissues to appropriately respond to a situation.
6. The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are both parts of the autonomic nervous system, and even though they are in charge of the same body functions, they make opposite things. Learn about the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and discover for which activities, in particular, are activated.
7. Brain Structures and Functions Part I
The structure of the brain is composed of different parts, such as the brain stem, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and many others. Learn about the different structures of the brain and each of their specific functions.
8. The Cerebral Cortex: Brain Structures and Functions Part II
The human brain has four lobes that coordinate to enable individuals to function as whole persons with emotions, motor functions, sensory perceptions, and the ability to learn and interact with others. Learn about the cerebral cortex, brain structures, and functions. Explore the four lobes--temporal, frontal, parietal, and occipital--and understand what each lobe does and how it works.
9. Innate Immunity: Inflammation, Neutrophils & Natural Killer Cells
The innate immune system builds a defense against dangerous pathogens and other foreign invaders of the body. Explore the innate immune system and discover the functions of various immune cells, like neutrophils, which are the first immune cells to respond to wounds.
10. Acquired Immunity: T Cells, B Cells and Antibodies
People who have acquired immunity against an illness cannot be infected with it again. Discover how T cells, B cells, and antibodies work together to fight illnesses in this lesson.
11. Antibiotics and Vaccines
Antibiotics and vaccines have a great contribution to the increase in life expectancy over time. Learn more about the history of antibiotics and vaccines, and how different types of vaccines are developed.
12. Flu Viruses, HIV and Immune System Evasion
Some viruses, such as influenza and HIV, continue to spread and infect despite the human immune system. Understand characteristics of these viruses, such as rapid or high mutation rates, and how they help in evading the human body's protections.
13. Pathogens: Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence
Antibiotic resistance comes about when a disease causing microbe evolves to hold out against the effects of medications due to overuse. Study antibiotic resistance, its dangers, virulence, factors of virulence, and how virulence specificity is beneficial.
14. Basophils: Definition & Function
Gain an understanding of basophils and their function in our bodies. Learn what can happen when basophils are too sensitive and how that can be corrected. Take a short quiz to test how well you understand basophils.
15. Optic Nerve Damage: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
In this lesson, we will use a real-life scenario to understand optic nerve damage. Also, we will learn about the causes, symptoms, and treatments of optic nerve damage.
16. What Is IgG? - Definition, Deficiency, & Blood Test
Globulins are a class of proteins that make up antibodies, which are part of the immune system and protect us from many diseases. Let's examine the most abundant globulin, called gamma globulin, its structure, function and what happens when it's deficient.
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