About This Chapter
The Transcription and Translation Process - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
One of the most fascinating and complicated processes in the cell is the use of DNA to make necessary proteins. In this chapter, our instructors will show you the complexities of this process. You'll learn how the cell prepares for replication, what role RNA plays, how to read codons, and the process of forming a polypeptide. Each of these steps will be explained in one video, so you can learn about transcription and translation one segment at a time. We'll situate each step within the central dogma, so you'll understand how each small step fits into the larger whole. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- The steps of transcription and translation
- How to interpret codons
- The molecular mechanism involved
- How cells choose which genes are expressed
|Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma||Understand the central dogma of cells and how protein synthesis fits into the steps.|
|Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA||See how DNA gets transcribed with the help of enzymes and mRNA.|
|Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction||Look at the ways organisms can control which genes are used at certain times.|
|How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell||Learn the parts of an operon and how they function to control gene transcription.|
|RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns and Exons||Explore gene regulation via coding and non-coding regions of RNA.|
|What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?||Discover the language of the genetic code that uses trios of nucleotides to signal different amino acids.|
|Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition||Understand how the genetic code is translated into a polypeptide and practice using the RNA codon chart.|
|Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code||See the molecular mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from an RNA code.|
|The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation||Look at the structure of ribosomes to see the role they play in translation.|
|Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation, and Termination Steps||Learn about the three major steps of polypeptide synthesis.|
1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.
5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.
6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?
How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.
7. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.
8. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code
How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.
9. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.
10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
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