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Ch 13: AP Biology: The Transcription and Translation Process

About This Chapter

Watch video lessons on DNA transcription and translation and learn ribosome structure, codon recognition, operon functions, and more. These lessons are just a portion of our AP Biology course.

The Transcription and Translation Process - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

One of the most fascinating and complicated processes in the cell is the use of DNA to make necessary proteins. In this chapter, our instructors will show you the complexities of this process. You'll learn how the cell prepares for replication, what role RNA plays, how to read codons, and the process of forming a polypeptide. Each of these steps will be explained in one video, so you can learn about transcription and translation one segment at a time. We'll situate each step within the central dogma, so you'll understand how each small step fits into the larger whole. This chapter is designed to teach you:

  • The steps of transcription and translation
  • How to interpret codons
  • The molecular mechanism involved
  • How cells choose which genes are expressed

VideoObjective
Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central DogmaUnderstand the central dogma of cells and how protein synthesis fits into the steps.
Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNASee how DNA gets transcribed with the help of enzymes and mRNA.
Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and InductionLook at the ways organisms can control which genes are used at certain times.
How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic CellLearn the parts of an operon and how they function to control gene transcription.
RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns and ExonsExplore gene regulation via coding and non-coding regions of RNA.
What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?Discover the language of the genetic code that uses trios of nucleotides to signal different amino acids.
Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon RecognitionUnderstand how the genetic code is translated into a polypeptide and practice using the RNA codon chart.
Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic CodeSee the molecular mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from an RNA code.
The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic TranslationLook at the structure of ribosomes to see the role they play in translation.
Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation, and Termination StepsLearn about the three major steps of polypeptide synthesis.

10 Lessons in Chapter 13: AP Biology: The Transcription and Translation Process
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.

Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.

Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.

How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.

RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.

What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?

6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?

How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.

Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition

7. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition

Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.

Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

8. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.

The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

9. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.

Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
Not Taken
Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
Not Taken

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