About This Chapter
Who's it for?
This unit of our AP Biology Homeschool course will benefit any student who is trying to learn about the steps and codes of the transcription and translation process. There is no faster or easier way to learn about biology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who require an efficient, self-paced course of study to learn about sense strand, anti-sense strand and gene expression.
- Homeschool parents looking to spend less time preparing lessons and more time teaching.
- Homeschool parents who need a biology curriculum that appeals to multiple learning types (visual or auditory).
- Gifted students and students with learning differences.
How it works:
- Students watch a short, fun video lesson that covers a specific unit topic.
- Students and parents can refer to the video transcripts to reinforce learning.
- Short quizzes and a transcription and translation process unit exam confirm understanding or identify any topics that require review.
Transcription and Translation Process Unit Objectives:
- Learn about the central dogma.
- Discuss the function of RNA polymerase.
- Examine eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic transcription.
- Explore the process of transcriptional repression.
- Study the components of eukaryotic genes.
- Learn about the role of codons.
- Examine the process of codon recognition.
- Discuss the definition of an anticodon.
- Study peptide bonds and ribosomes.
- Explore the steps of the translation process.
1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.
5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.
6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?
How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.
7. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.
8. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code
How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.
9. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.
10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
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Other chapters within the AP Biology: Homeschool Curriculum course
- AP Biology - Science Basics: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - The Origin of Life on Earth: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Evolution Overview: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Inorganic Chemistry Review: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Organic Chemistry Review: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Enzymatic Biochemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Cell Biology: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Biological Systems Requirements - Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Cell Division: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Metabolic Biochemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - DNA and RNA Overview: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - DNA Replication: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Genetics and Heredity: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Genetic Mutations: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Phylogeny & Classification of Organisms: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Plant Biology: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Plant Reproduction & Growth: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Animal Reproduction and Development: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Reproductive Systems Anatomy & Physiology: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Human Body Systems: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - The Nervous, Immune & Endocrine Systems: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Ecology Overview: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Animal Behavior: Homeschool Curriculum
- Basic Molecular Biology Laboratory Techniques: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Analyzing Scientific Data: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Laboratory: Homeschool Curriculum