About This Chapter
AP Chemistry: Acids, Bases, and Chemical Reactions - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The interaction of opposing forces is an exciting part of the study of chemistry. In this chapter, our instructors will show you what happens when different substances come together. You'll learn about pH and the molecular differences between acids and bases. Our lessons each focus on one aspect of chemical reactions that involve acids and bases, from redox reactions to precipitates. You'll learn how to balance the equations for these reactions as well as identify the possible products. After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Balance redox, single-displacement, precipitation, and combustion reaction equations
- Describe acids and bases using the pH scale
- Explain the importance of ionization and bonding in pH
- Identify anions, cations, anodes, cathodes, and other electrochemical compounds
|Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions||Learn about reactions that produce new molecules and break apart others.|
|The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases||Understand how this theory defines acids and bases and learn some common uses of acids.|
|The Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases||Explore the proton donation and acceptance and electron pairs at the foundations of these theories.|
|Neutralization and Acid-Base Reactions||Examine the neutralization process and how to write and label acid-base reactions.|
|Dissociation Constant and Autoionization of Water||Discover how water breaks apart into ions and how to calculate the resulting ion concentrations.|
|The pH Scale: Calculating the pH or pOH of a Solution||Learn about the scale that rates acids and bases and what it measures.|
|Acids and Base Salts||Understand how a salt solution can be acidic or basic depending on the character of the anions and cations involved.|
|Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers||Explore the solutions that fall toward the middle of the pH scale and what a buffer can do in a solution.|
|Anhydrides: Acids and Bases||Examine the two acyl groups of anhydrides and what effect they have on the properties of the molecule.|
|Coordination Chemistry: Bonding in Coordinated Compounds||Discover the bonds that form between metallic atoms and various ligands to create a complex.|
|Precipitation Reactions: Predicting Precipitates and Net Ionic Equations||Learn how to predict whether a precipitate will form when writing a chemical equation.|
|Assigning Oxidation Numbers to Elements in a Chemical Formula||Understand what an oxidation number signifies and how to write chemical formulas with these numbers.|
|Balancing Redox Reactions and Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents||Explore the half-reaction method for balancing redox reactions with oxidizing and reducing agents.|
|The Activity Series: Predicting Products of Single Displacement Reactions||Examine the reactivity of metals and how to use the series to predict the products of reactions.|
|Electrochemical Cells and Electrochemistry||Discover the basis for batteries in electrochemical cells that derive energy from chemical reactions.|
|Cathode and Anode Half-Cell Reactions||Learn how to write electrode half-reactions for cathodes and anodes, calculating cell voltage potential.|
|Writing and Balancing Combustion Reactions||Understand combustion reactions and write equations with a given fuel.|
1. Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions
Learn how to write, identify and predict the products of simple synthesis and decomposition reactions. This includes the composition of reactions with oxygen, of two metals, and of metals with nonmetals, as well as the decomposition of metal carbonates, metal chlorates and metal hydroxides.
2. The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases
In this lesson, you will learn the definition of Arrhenius acids and bases, discover some of their chemical properties and learn some examples. You will also learn about the difference between strong and weak Arrhenius acids and bases.
3. The Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases
Learn the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis definitions of an acid and base. Discover how these theories differ from each other and from the Arrhenius theory of an acid and base. Learn how to identify an acid in terms of proton donation and a base as a proton acceptor, and explain what a conjugate acid or base is.
4. Neutralization and Acid-Base Reactions
From this lesson, you will understand the neutralization process between acids and bases. Learn how a hydroxide ion from a base reacts with a hydronium ion from an acid to neutralize each other and form water. Discover what conjugate acids and bases are and what the definition of amphoteric is.
5. Dissociation Constant and Autoionization of Water
Learn the meaning of auto-ionization of water, sometimes called self-ionization, where water acts as a proton donor and acceptor to form both hydronium and hydroxide ions. Learn what the auto-ionization constant is and how to use it to determine the concentration of either hydroxide or hydronium ions in a solution when given the other value.
6. The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution
Learn the history of the pH scale, how to describe it and why it is used by scientists. Discover how to calculate the pH of an acid or base solutions given either the hydroxide ion concentration or the hydronium ion concentration. Learn how to start with the pH and calculate the hydroxide and hydronium ion concentrations.
7. Acidic & Basic Salt Solutions: Explanation & Examples
In this video lesson, you will learn how to tell if a salt solution is acidic, basic, or neutral. You will find out how to recognize the effect of individual ions in solution and how they can change the pH. A short quiz will test your knowledge.
8. Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers
This lesson covers both strong and weak acids and bases, using human blood as an example for the discussion. Other concepts discussed included conjugate acids and bases, the acidity constant, and buffer systems within the blood.
9. Acid & Base Anhydrides: Definition & Examples
In this video lesson, you will learn the definition and the types of anhydrides that form acids and bases in water. You will also discover where you can commonly find anhydrides and why they are important. A short quiz will test your knowledge.
10. Coordination Chemistry: Bonding in Coordinated Compounds
Discover what a coordinated compound is. Understand how bonding occurs in coordinated compounds and some of the possible shapes coordinated compounds can be. Learn the uses in nature and industry for coordinated compounds.
11. Precipitation Reactions: Predicting Precipitates and Net Ionic Equations
Learn what a precipitate is and predict when it will form in an aqueous chemical reaction, usually a double-replacement reaction. Learn what an ionic equation is, how it differs from a net ionic equation and how to write a net ionic equation.
12. Redox (Oxidation-Reduction) Reactions: Definitions and Examples
This short video will explain oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox reactions for short. The focus is on how electrons are transferred during redox reactions. Learn some neat mnemonic devices to help you remember when an atom is oxidizing or reducing.
13. Assigning Oxidation Numbers to Elements in a Chemical Formula
Learn the importance of oxidation in chemical reactions. Discover the rules for assigning oxidation numbers in both covalent compounds and ionic compounds. Learn how to assign the oxidation number for each element in a chemical formula.
14. Balancing Redox Reactions and Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
Learn how to identify an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent and how the loss or gain of electrons applies to each one. Learn the relationship between an oxidized or reduced substance and the oxidizing or reducing agent associated with it. Discover what steps to take to balance a redox reaction.
15. The Activity Series: Predicting Products of Single Displacement Reactions
Discover what a single replacement reaction is and how to identify it. Learn what chemical activity is, how that applies to an activity series table and how to predict the product of a single replacement reaction by referring to the activity series.
16. Electrochemical Cells and Electrochemistry
Learn to identify the parts of and be able to describe an electrochemical cell, including the electrolyte, electrodes, anodes, and cathodes. Learn how to make a homemade lemon battery and how to diagram an electrochemical cell that will light a light bulb.
17. Cathode and Anode Half-Cell Reactions
Learn how to write electrode half-reactions for cathodes and anodes. Discover how to calculate cell voltage potential when given a table of standard electrode potentials. Learn how to prevent corrosion using redox concepts and how to protect metal by cathodic protection.
18. Writing and Balancing Combustion Reactions
Discover what a combustion reaction is as well as what reactants are needed and what products are produced. Learn to write and balance a combustion reaction. Through the concepts of bond energies, learn how to explain why combustion reactions are largely exothermic.
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Other chapters within the AP Chemistry: Exam Prep course
- AP Chemistry: Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Properties of Matter
- AP Chemistry: Atomic Structure
- AP Chemistry: The Periodic Table of Elements
- AP Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Bonding
- AP Chemistry: Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- AP Chemistry: Gases
- AP Chemistry: Solutions
- AP Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- AP Chemistry: Equilibrium
- AP Chemistry: Kinetics
- AP Chemistry: Thermodynamics
- AP Chemistry: Organic Chemistry
- Portions of the AP Chemistry Exam
- AP Chemistry Flashcards