About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering AP chemistry material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn AP chemistry. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding the atom or early atomic theory
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about atomic structure
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Atomic Structure chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Atomic Structure chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any atomic structure question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in an atomic structure unit of a standard AP chemistry course. Topics covered include:
- Atomic and mass numbers
- Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan's early atomic theories
- Isotopes and average atomic mass of an element
- Methods for counting atoms with the mole
- Rules of atomic structures
- Differences between diamagnetism and paramagnetism
- The Bohr Model
- de Broglie hyphothesis
1. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
2. Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.
3. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan
Imagine firing a bullet at a piece of tissue paper and having it bounce back at you! You would probably be just as surprised as Rutherford when he discovered the nucleus. In this lesson, we are going to travel back in time and discuss some of the major discoveries in the history of the atom.
4. Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass
When you drink a glass of water, you are actually drinking a combination of heavy water and light water. What's the difference? Is it harmful? This video will explain the difference between the two types of water and go into detail on the significance of the different isotopes of elements.
5. Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms
How do we move from the atomic world to the regular world? Because atoms are so tiny, how can we count and measure them? And what do chemists celebrate at 6:02 AM on October 23rd each year? In this lesson, you will be learning how Avogadro's number and the mole can answer these questions.
6. Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels
This lesson will explain what the electrons are doing inside the atom. Tune in to find out how we specify where they are located and how this location description will help us predict an element's properties.
7. Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Description & Applications
In this video, you will learn about the useful lab technique Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES). Additionally, you will study graphs made from PES data and interpret their meaning to ultimately understand how data from PES can be used to determine electron configurations and describe atomic structure.
8. Atomic Structures: Pauli Exclusion Principle, Aufbau Principle & Hund's Rule
This lesson discusses the three main rules that govern how electrons fit in the atomic structure by filling the shells, subshells, and orbitals. We will also review the basics of quantum numbers before learning these principles.
9. Diamagnetism & Paramagnetism: Definition & Explanation
In this lesson, we learn more about electron configuration through the concepts of diamagnetism and paramagnetism. We will review electron structure in an atom, and define diamagnetism and paramagnetism.
10. Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic & Spin
Each electron inside of an atom has its own 'address' that consists of four quantum numbers that communicate a great deal of information about that electron. In this lesson, we will be defining each quantum number and explaining how to write a set of quantum numbers for a specific electron.
11. The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra
Do you ever wonder where light comes from or how it is produced? In this lesson, we are going to use our knowledge of the electron configurations and quantum numbers to see what goes on during the creation of light.
12. Atomic Structure: Definition, History & Timeline
From its philosophical roots to the modern-day scientific model, learn the basic history and structure of the atom, the basic building block of all matter.
13. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: Definition & Equation
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is one of the core concepts in quantum mechanics. In this lesson, we define the uncertainty principle and learn more about its implications for physical science.
14. The de Broglie Hypothesis: Definition & Significance
The de Broglie hypothesis states that particles of matter can behave as both waves and particles, just like light. In this lesson, we'll learn the basics of the de Broglie hypothesis and how it related to other theories released at the same time.
15. Limitations of VSEPR Theory
What limits a theory in chemistry? In this lesson we will be discussing the most important short-comings and limitations of valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory.
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Other chapters within the AP Chemistry: Help and Review course
- AP Chemistry: Experimental Laboratory Chemistry: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Properties of Matter: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: The Periodic Table of Elements: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Bonding: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Gases: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Solutions: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Equilibrium: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Kinetics: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Thermodynamics: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: Help and Review
- Portions of the AP Chemistry Exam: Help and Review