About This Chapter
AP Chemistry: Atomic Structure - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Knowing the makeup of atoms - protons, neutrons, and electrons - is essential to understanding how chemical reactions occur on the atomic level. In this chapter, our instructors will elucidate the complicated theories of quantum mechanics, or how particles work on the subatomic level. The lessons each cover one topic in this field, from determining atomic mass using the periodic table to how particles can behave like energy. You'll learn about Avogadro's number and how to use moles to make calculations as well as how to figure out where electrons are situated around the nucleus. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- Atomic structure, including electron shell levels
- How atoms act on microscopic scales
- The basics of quantum theory
- Calculations using the periodic table and moles
|The Atom||Learn the makeup of an atom, from what's in the nucleus to how different elements look on the atomic level.|
|Atomic Number and Mass Number||Understand how to determine the atomic number, mass of an atom, and other information about specific atoms.|
|Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, and Millikan||Explore the findings of these early chemists and how they contributed to the field.|
|Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass||Examine how certain elements can have variants based on the number of neutrons.|
|Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms||Discover this number and its unit that is at the base of many chemistry calculations.|
|Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels||Learn about how electrons inhabit the space around the nucleus and how to determine which levels are used.|
|Principles and Rules of Atomic Structures||Take a look at some basics of quantum mechanics that explain the complex rules of the subatomic realm.|
|Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism||Understand these two types of magnetism and how they differ at the atomic level.|
|Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic, and Spin||Explore how to write the numbers that describe spatial and angular momentum aspects of atoms.|
|The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra||Examine the Bohr model of atoms and what it can tell us about atomic spectra.|
|The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle||Discover this theory that describes the unknowability of certain properties in relation to the precision of other properties.|
|The de Brogile Hypothesis||Learn about this theory that posits that particles of matter could behave like energy with wavelengths.|
1. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
2. Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.
3. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan
Imagine firing a bullet at a piece of tissue paper and having it bounce back at you! You would probably be just as surprised as Rutherford when he discovered the nucleus. In this lesson, we are going to travel back in time and discuss some of the major discoveries in the history of the atom.
4. Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass
When you drink a glass of water, you are actually drinking a combination of heavy water and light water. What's the difference? Is it harmful? This video will explain the difference between the two types of water and go into detail on the significance of the different isotopes of elements.
5. Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms
How do we move from the atomic world to the regular world? Because atoms are so tiny, how can we count and measure them? And what do chemists celebrate at 6:02 AM on October 23rd each year? In this lesson, you will be learning how Avogadro's number and the mole can answer these questions.
6. Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels
This lesson will explain what the electrons are doing inside the atom. Tune in to find out how we specify where they are located and how this location description will help us predict an element's properties.
7. Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Description & Applications
In this video, you will learn about the useful lab technique Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES). Additionally, you will study graphs made from PES data and interpret their meaning to ultimately understand how data from PES can be used to determine electron configurations and describe atomic structure.
8. Atomic Structures: Pauli Exclusion Principle, Aufbau Principle & Hund's Rule
This lesson discusses the three main rules that govern how electrons fit in the atomic structure by filling the shells, subshells, and orbitals. We will also review the basics of quantum numbers before learning these principles.
9. Diamagnetism & Paramagnetism: Definition & Explanation
In this lesson, we learn more about electron configuration through the concepts of diamagnetism and paramagnetism. We will review electron structure in an atom, and define diamagnetism and paramagnetism.
10. Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic & Spin
Each electron inside of an atom has its own 'address' that consists of four quantum numbers that communicate a great deal of information about that electron. In this lesson, we will be defining each quantum number and explaining how to write a set of quantum numbers for a specific electron.
11. The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra
Do you ever wonder where light comes from or how it is produced? In this lesson, we are going to use our knowledge of the electron configurations and quantum numbers to see what goes on during the creation of light.
12. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: Definition & Equation
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is one of the core concepts in quantum mechanics. In this lesson, we define the uncertainty principle and learn more about its implications for physical science.
13. The de Broglie Hypothesis: Definition & Significance
The de Broglie hypothesis states that particles of matter can behave as both waves and particles, just like light. In this lesson, we'll learn the basics of the de Broglie hypothesis and how it related to other theories released at the same time.
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Other chapters within the AP Chemistry: Exam Prep course
- AP Chemistry: Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Properties of Matter
- AP Chemistry: The Periodic Table of Elements
- AP Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Bonding
- AP Chemistry: Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- AP Chemistry: Gases
- AP Chemistry: Solutions
- AP Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- AP Chemistry: Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions
- AP Chemistry: Equilibrium
- AP Chemistry: Kinetics
- AP Chemistry: Thermodynamics
- AP Chemistry: Organic Chemistry
- Portions of the AP Chemistry Exam
- AP Chemistry Flashcards