About This Chapter
AP Chemistry: Bonding - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Atoms come together to form molecules, and there are different ways that bond can affect how the molecule functions. In this chapter, you'll learn all about chemical bonding, from the basic types of bond to predicting how bonds will happen. Our experienced instructors have broken down the chapter into smaller lessons that each focus on one topic in order to help you understand the complexities of this fundamental chemistry concept. You'll see how electrons factor in to bonding and the many types of forces acting within and between molecules. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- How to draw diagrams to show bonding in molecules
- The types of bonds and what effect they have
- The polar forces acting on atoms and molecules
- How to predict bonds using the periodic table
|Chemical Bonds I: Covalent||Understand this type of bond that involves the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms.|
|Chemical Bonds II: Ionic||Learn about bonds that form between two oppositely-charged ions and the vocabulary associated with this bonding.|
|Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent||Explore bonds that share electrons and result in a difference in electronegativity of the molecule.|
|Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen||Examine the electromagnetic attraction of a polar hydrogen atom in a molecule to a polar atom.|
|The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms||Discover how to write molecular diagrams with Lewis dots and how many electrons are shared.|
|Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions||Understand how to predict the charge that an atom will have when it becomes an ion.|
|Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy, and Properties||Learn about the energy contained in the ionic bonds of a compound and how that holds compounds together.|
|Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal, and Polyatomic Ion Compounds||Explore the way to name and write the formula for ionic compounds of all types.|
|Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming, and Formation||Examine how covalent compounds are formed and the properties they exhibit.|
|Lewis Structures: Single, Double, and Triple Bonds||Discover the way to draw Lewis structures with more complex types of bonds.|
|Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions and Resonance Structures||Take a look at drawing diagrams for molecules that require more than one Lewis formula.|
|Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character||Understand how to use the periodic table to determine the polarity of a bond.|
|VSEPR Theory and Dipole Moments||Learn how to use this theory based on electron pair repulsion to predict the shapes of molecules.|
|Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole, and Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces||Explore these forces and their effects on properties like boiling and melting points.|
|London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waal's Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces||Examine the movement of electrons in interacting molecules and how this affects properties.|
|Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape||Discover how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valance bond theory and hybridization.|
|Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams||Take a look at sketching the overlap of orbitals to form sigma and pi bonds and determine bond order.|
|Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model and Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors||Understand the electron-sea model, how it affects metallic bonding, and why metals have the properties they are known for.|
|Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules||Learn about the bonding that takes place in larger structures and how to identify different types of macromolecules.|
|Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers||Explore the differing structures of these organic molecules and how one formula can have different structures.|
|Functional Groups in Organic Molecules||Examine the functional groups that help us to define certain types of organic molecules.|
1. Chemical Bonds I: Covalent
Mom always said that sharing is caring. This lesson will explore how electrons affect the chemical reactivity of atoms and specifically the merits of sharing electrons.
2. Chemical Bonds II: Ionic
Did you know that the scientific name for table salt is sodium chloride? Find out how sodium and chlorine atoms come together to form your favorite seasoning.
3. Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent
Are you confused about how you can tell what kind of bond two atoms will form? This lesson will help you understand the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds as well as how to predict how two atoms will interact.
4. Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen
This lesson defines and discusses important concepts behind hydrogen bonding. You'll learn when and why these bonds occur and which atoms are often involved.
5. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
Learn the octet rule and how it applies to electron energy levels. Identify valence electrons and learn how to determine them by looking at the periodic table. Also, discover how they pertain to the octet rule. Learn how to draw the Lewis diagram of an atom, and understand how it provides clues to chemical bonding.
6. Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions
Learn how ions are formed using the octet rule. Use the periodic table to predict the charge an atom will have when it becomes an ion. Learn whether an ion is a cation or anion and how to write the formula depending on what charge the ion has.
7. Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties
In this lesson, you'll learn about ionic compounds and how they form. Additionally, you'll learn the properties of ionic compounds, such as their high melting and boiling points, their ability to conduct electricity, and the fact that they form crystals.
8. Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal & Polyatomic Ion Compounds
An important part of dealing with chemical compounds is knowing how to refer to them. Learn how to name all ionic compounds, including simple binary compounds, compounds containing transition metals and compounds containing polyatomic ions.
9. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation
Learn about covalent bonds, how covalent compounds are formed and the properties inherent to covalent compounds, such as low melting and boiling points, in this lesson. Also, learn what rules to follow to name simple covalent compounds.
10. Lewis Structures: Single, Double & Triple Bonds
Review what a Lewis dot diagram is and discover how to draw a Lewis dot structural formula for compounds. Learn how to represent single, double and triple bonds with lines instead of dots. Also, learn how compounds arrange themselves.
11. Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions
This lesson defines Lewis dot structures and explains how to draw them for molecules in step-by-step detail. We'll also explore polyatomic ions and how to draw Lewis dot structures for them.
12. Lewis Dot Structures: Resonance
In this lesson, we'll review Lewis dot structures and how to draw them. Then, learn about resonance and resonance structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. Afterwards, assess your new knowledge with a quiz.
13. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
Learn about covalent bonds and their two types: nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. Discover how to predict the type of bond that will form based on the periodic table. Learn what ionic character means and how to determine it.
14. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
In this lesson, you'll learn about the VSEPR theory and how it can be used to explain molecule shapes. Then, learn how to predict the shape of a molecule by applying the VSEPR theory to the Lewis dot structure.
15. Dipoles & Dipole Moments: Molecule Polarity
Learn about dipoles and dipole moments in this lesson. Understand the relationship between dipole moments and molecule polarity, and learn how to determine if a molecule is polar or nonpolar.
16. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces
Learn about intermolecular vs. intramolecular forces. Learn the different intermolecular bonds (including hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces), their strengths, and their effects on properties, such as boiling and melting points, solubility, and evaporation.
17. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces
Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.
18. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
You'll learn how to explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization. When finished, you'll understand the difference between sigma and pi bonds and how the VSEPR theory, along with the hybridization theory, helps predict the shape of a molecule.
19. Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams
Learn how to sketch the overlap of orbitals to form sigma and pi bonds. Use the molecular orbital theory to determine bond order. Discover how bond order affects bond strength and bond energy.
20. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Learn why metallic bonding is called the electron sea model. Discover why metals bond the way they do and why they are shiny, malleable and conduct electricity well.
21. Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules
Understand what a macromolecule is and be able to identify both organic and inorganic macromolecules. Organic molecules include proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
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Other chapters within the AP Chemistry: Exam Prep course
- AP Chemistry: Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Properties of Matter
- AP Chemistry: Atomic Structure
- AP Chemistry: The Periodic Table of Elements
- AP Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- AP Chemistry: Gases
- AP Chemistry: Solutions
- AP Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- AP Chemistry: Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions
- AP Chemistry: Equilibrium
- AP Chemistry: Kinetics
- AP Chemistry: Thermodynamics
- AP Chemistry: Organic Chemistry
- Portions of the AP Chemistry Exam
- AP Chemistry Flashcards