About This Chapter
AP Chemistry: Equilibrium - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
After a chemical reaction has occurred, the reactants and products will reach concentrations that no longer change. In this chapter, you'll learn about the different types of equilibrium that can occur in chemical reactions and how to perform various calculations regarding reactions in equilibrium. Our instructors have broken down this chapter into lessons that each deal with a specific topic, from equilibrium constants to the dynamic equilibrium of an ionic solution. You'll learn the theory behind these reactions, take a look at some common experiments, and learn the calculations associated with these reactions. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- How and why reactions reach equilibrium
- What tools you need for dealing with reactions in equilibrium
- The ways ions behave in equilibrium
- Calculations that deal with states of equilibrium
|Dynamic Equilibrium: Physical and Chemical||Understand the concepts of equilibrium and dynamic equilibrium in a chemical reaction.|
|LeChatelier's Principle: Disruption and Re-Establishment of Equilibrium||Learn about this principle that can be used to predict the change of an equilibrium in a chemical reaction.|
|Equilibrium Constant (K) and Equilibrium Quotient (Q)||Explore how to calculate the equilibrium constant and quotient for various reactions.|
|Using a RICE Table in Equilibrium Calculations||Examine how to use this tool to write the change and equilibrium of chemical reactions.|
|Solubility Equilibrium: Using a Solubility Constant (Ksp) in Calculations||Discover this specific type of dynamic equilibrium and how to perform calculations with solutions.|
|The Common Ion Effect and Selective Precipitation||Understand how a change in equilibrium can result in the precipitation of a salt from a solution.|
|Acid-Base Equilibrium: Calculating the Ka or Kb of a Solution||Learn how acids and bases react by donating protons and creating ions and learn to calculate these concentrations.|
|Acid-Base Buffers: Calculating the pH of a Buffered Solution||Explore how a buffer can affect pH and how to calculate when buffers are involved.|
|Titration of a Strong Acid or Strong Base||Discover how to calculate the pH at any point in an acid-base titration of a strong acid and a strong base.|
1. Equilibrium: Chemical and Dynamic
Learn the definition of chemical equilibrium and how it is dynamic. Discover what the equilibrium constant is and how it shows whether the reaction favors the reactants or products. Learn how chemists designate equilibrium in an equation and how they show the difference in reaction rate.
2. LeChatelier's Principle: Disruption and Re-Establishment of Equilibrium
Learn how Le Chatelier's Principle describes the disruption and re-establishment of equilibrium. Learn to explain the factors that disrupt equilibrium, such as concentration, temperature, and pressure. Learn how each of these factors affects a system in equilibrium.
3. Equilibrium Constant (K) and Reaction Quotient (Q)
In this lesson, we will first define and explain the notion of a chemical equilibrium. Then, you'll learn about the equilibrium constant and reaction quotient. Finally, we'll round off the lesson with a couple of examples to solidify what you've learned!
4. Using a RICE Table in Equilibrium Calculations
Learn what the RICE table is and how to fill in the table with the reaction, initial concentration, change in concentration and amount of product and reactants at equilibrium. Learn how to use the RICE table to calculate the concentrations and amounts and the equilibrium constant of equations at equilibrium.
5. Solubility Equilibrium: Using a Solubility Constant (Ksp) in Calculations
Learn the definition of solubility and solubility constant (Ksp) in this lesson. Interpret solubility constants and make calculations involving the dissociation of a slightly soluble compound given molar solubility.
6. The Common Ion Effect and Selective Precipitation
Learn what the common ion effect is, how to make equilibrium calculations involving it, and how to find the concentrations of ions when adding reactions in equilibrium to solutions that already contain ions.
7. Acid-Base Equilibrium: Calculating the Ka or Kb of a Solution
In this lesson, you will review acid and base strength and acid and base dissociation. You will then learn what acid and base dissociation constants (Ka and Kb) are, what they mean, and how to perform calculations involving them.
8. Acid-Base Buffers: Calculating the pH of a Buffered Solution
Learn what a buffer is, how it works, and why we benefit from having our blood buffered. Learn how to calculate the pH of a buffered solution before an acid or base is added and how the pH changes after an acid or base is added.
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Other chapters within the AP Chemistry: Exam Prep course
- AP Chemistry: Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Properties of Matter
- AP Chemistry: Atomic Structure
- AP Chemistry: The Periodic Table of Elements
- AP Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Bonding
- AP Chemistry: Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- AP Chemistry: Gases
- AP Chemistry: Solutions
- AP Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- AP Chemistry: Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions
- AP Chemistry: Kinetics
- AP Chemistry: Thermodynamics
- AP Chemistry: Organic Chemistry
- Portions of the AP Chemistry Exam
- AP Chemistry Flashcards