About This Chapter
AP Chemistry: Organic Chemistry - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
All of the life forms on our Earth contain carbon in their molecules, and these molecules are what we study in organic chemistry. In this chapter, you'll learn the different types of organic molecules, from carbohydrates to proteins. Each lesson will focus on a different compound, describing its structure and how that structure affects its function. You'll also get to look at organic reactions that occur between these molecules, including some that are very important in sustaining life. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- The structure and function of basic organic compounds
- How proteins are made and what they look like
- To identify organic molecules
- How organic molecules interact with other compounds
|Organic Chemistry: The Study of Carbon Compounds||Get an overview of organic chemistry and what it means to be a carbon-based life form.|
|Hydrocarbons: Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, and Hydrocarbon Rings||Learn about molecules that consist entirely of hydrogen and carbon and what each type is like.|
|Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups||Understand the different structures of atoms that can make up organic molecules and what they're called.|
|Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers||Explore the differences between one molecule and a group of molecules.|
|Isomers||Examine molecules with the same formula but different structures and learn to draw isomers of common molecules.|
|Structure and Function of Carbohydrates||Discover these organic compounds that consist solely of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and the importance they play in biological processes.|
|Structure and Function of Lipids||Learn about what makes these molecules hydrophobic and why that is important to their function.|
|Proteins I: Structure and Function||Understand what proteins look like and how they perform numerous biological duties.|
|Proteins II: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids||Explore the building blocks of proteins and how they come together in various ways.|
|Proteins III: Amino Acids, Polymerization, and Peptide Bonds||Examine the ways that proteins are built through the bonds that form between amino acids.|
|Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary Structure||Discover the different levels of structure a protein may exhibit and what effect this change can have.|
|Organic Reactions: Addition, Substitution, Polymerization, Cracking, Oxidation, Esterification, and Fermentation||Take a look at the various ways organic molecules can react with each other and learn the chemical equations associated with the reactions.|
1. Organic Chemistry & the Study of Carbon Compound Life Forms
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-containing compounds. This lesson will explore why carbon is such an important element, and how organic chemistry is related to your life.
2. Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers
Learn more about carbon and hydrogen and see how these atoms come together to form distinct molecules. Also, study the difference between saturated and unsaturated molecules.
3. Drawing Isomers of Organic Molecules: Practice Problems
Sometimes things that look the same are actually quite different, and we find this to be true with isomers. In this lesson, you'll learn about different types of isomers and how even small changes can make a big difference.
4. Functional Groups in Organic Molecules
Learn what an organic compound is and how their functional groups affect them. Identify the different types of functional groups including alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, carboxylic acids and esters.
5. Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups
If you've ever wondered what gives vinegar that sour flavor, you may not realize that you have contemplated functional groups. View this lesson for an introduction to organic chemistry, functional groups and how they are part of your daily life.
6. Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers
From everyday man-made items like milk jugs and styrofoam to natural proteins and plant materials, the world is full of polymers! Check out this lesson to learn how polymers are constructed on a molecular level.
7. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.
8. Structure and Function of Lipids
Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.
9. Proteins I: Structure and Function
We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.
10. Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids
How do amino acids form the intricate polypeptide chains found in proteins? It's a matter of chemistry. Join glycine, a special amino acid, as she sizes up the other amino acids.
11. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds
In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.
12. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure
How is progressing through higher order protein structures like crafting an essay? In this lesson, you'll explore everything from quaternary structures to denaturation as we show how the different structures are intertwined.
13. Organic Chemical Reactions: Addition, Substitution, Polymerization & Cracking
Organic molecules can combine, swap atoms, break apart and even make more of themselves. In this lesson, we will explore several organic reactions with examples.
14. Organic Chemical Reactions: Redox, Esterification & Fermentation
There are many different types of reactions that occur in organic chemistry. This lesson will highlight three reactions, explaining which organic molecules are the reactants and which are the products, as well as what occurs during the reaction.
15. What is Salt in Chemistry? - Definition & Formula
What exactly do we mean by 'salt' in chemistry? Learn more about the definition, chemical, and physical properties and how we can easily figure out the chemical formula of many salts. Test what you have learned with a quiz.
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Other chapters within the AP Chemistry: Exam Prep course
- AP Chemistry: Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Properties of Matter
- AP Chemistry: Atomic Structure
- AP Chemistry: The Periodic Table of Elements
- AP Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Bonding
- AP Chemistry: Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- AP Chemistry: Gases
- AP Chemistry: Solutions
- AP Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- AP Chemistry: Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions
- AP Chemistry: Equilibrium
- AP Chemistry: Kinetics
- AP Chemistry: Thermodynamics
- Portions of the AP Chemistry Exam
- AP Chemistry Flashcards