About This Chapter
AP Chemistry: Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The chemistry behind snow melting or ice forming on a lake is more than just heat transfer. In this chapter, our instructors will explain what really happens when a substance changes from a solid, liquid, or gas into another phase of matter. You'll look at the diagrams that describe this process and why some substances change differently than others. You'll understand the chemistry behind melting, evaporation, freezing, and more. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- How to read and interpret phase change diagrams
- The chemical reactions involved in phase changes
- The structural changes associated with phase changes
- How different states of matter act in their environment
|The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Solids and Liquids||Learn about this theory and how it describes properties based on molecular composition and motion.|
|Phase Diagrams: Critical Point, Triple Point, and Phase Equilibrium Boundaries||Understand diagrams that show how substances change phases and what different points on the diagram represent.|
|Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation, Freezing, Melting, Sublimation, and Deposition||Explore the different ways that substances can change from a solid, liquid, or gas to a different state.|
|Heat of Fusion and Vaporization||Examine what happens to heat energy during a phase change and why temperature stops increasing for a time.|
|Phase Diagram for Water||Take a look at the diagram showing how and when water changes phases and how it's different from other substances.|
|Phase Changes and Heating Curves||Discover what happens during a phase change and learn to interpret heating curves.|
|Crystal Structures and the Unit Cell||Learn about the molecular structure of crystals and how the lattice formation works.|
1. The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Solids and Liquids
This lesson explores the kinetic molecular theory and how it pertains to the properties of solids and liquids. You'll learn the properties of solids and liquids, discover the types of intermolecular attractions that occur between them and gain an understanding how phase changes happen.
2. Phase Diagrams: Critical Point, Triple Point and Phase Equilibrium Boundaries
Learn what a phase diagram is and how to interpret phase diagrams. Discover how to use a phase diagram to locate the phase equilibrium boundaries. Also, learn what a triple point and critical point are and how to locate them on a phase diagram.
3. Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation, Freezing, Melting, Sublimation & Deposition
Substances on Earth can exist in one of four phases, but mostly, they exist in one of three: solid, liquid or gas. Learn the six changes of phase: freezing, melting, condensation, vaporization, sublimation and deposition.
4. Heat of Fusion & Heat of Vaporization: Definitions & Equations
When a substance changes states, like from a solid to a liquid, a lot is happening. This lesson will examine the heat of fusion and the heat of vaporization. It will also explain both formulas.
5. Phase Diagram of Water vs Other Substances: Differences & Meaning
Phase diagrams give scientists specific information about how phase changes occur at different pressures and temperatures. This lesson examines phase diagrams, focusing on water and how it's a little different from most other substances.
6. Phase Changes and Heating Curves
Learn the phases - gas, liquid, solid and plasma. Learn what a phase diagram is and what terms describe the movement between phases: melting, sublimating, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and deposition. Discover why heating curves have plateaus, what a phase transition is, and what happens during this transition.
7. Crystal Structures and the Unit Cell
This crystallography lesson explores the structure and properties of crystals. You'll learn about the parts of a crystal structure, types of crystals and patterns created by unit cells.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the AP Chemistry: Exam Prep course
- AP Chemistry: Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Properties of Matter
- AP Chemistry: Atomic Structure
- AP Chemistry: The Periodic Table of Elements
- AP Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Bonding
- AP Chemistry: Gases
- AP Chemistry: Solutions
- AP Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- AP Chemistry: Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions
- AP Chemistry: Equilibrium
- AP Chemistry: Kinetics
- AP Chemistry: Thermodynamics
- AP Chemistry: Organic Chemistry
- Portions of the AP Chemistry Exam
- AP Chemistry Flashcards