About This Chapter
AP Chemistry: Solutions - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
A solution - one substance dissolved in another - is a cornerstone of chemistry theory and experimentation. In this chapter, you'll learn the different types of solutions and what factors affect them. The chapter is broken down into smaller lessons that focus on different aspects of chemical solutions. You'll discover how much of a substance can be dissolved in a solution and how to calculate concentrations and more. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- How chemical bonds affect the nature of solutions
- How to calculate concentration, dilution, molecules, and mass
- The ways various substances form solutions
- How solutions are used in chemistry experiments
|The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition||Understand how the interactions among molecules contribute to the enthalpy of a solution and what factors affect the rate of dissolution.|
|Solutions, Electrolytes, and Nonelectrolytes||Learn how ionic and covalent bonds affect solutions and how to determine the difference.|
|Solubility and Solubility Curves||Discover the solubility of substances in water and how pressure and temperature affect that solubility.|
|Solubility of Common Salts||Examine how to use the solubility of common salts to predict the outcome of chemical reactions.|
|Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration||Explore the chemistry unit of moles and how to use this number in chemical calculations.|
|Calculating Dilution of Solutions||Understand dilution and how to calculate this reduction of concentration in a solution.|
|Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law||Learn how to calculate changes in the freezing and boiling points of a solution.|
|Using Colligative Properties to Determine Molar Mass||Discover how freezing point depression data can be used to calculate the molar mass of an unknown substance in an experiment.|
|Solubility of Gases||Look at an example experiment to learn about solubility of gas.|
1. The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition
Learn what dissolution is and the factors that affect the rate of dissolution, such as temperature, surface area, polarity and pressure. Learn what miscible and immiscible mean in regards to liquids.
2. Solutions, Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
Learn what a solution is and how it is formed. Learn how to express the concentration of a solution in terms of molarity, molality and mass percent. Discover the differences between an electrolyte and a nonelectrolyte.
3. Solubility and Solubility Curves
Learn what solubility is as well as the definitions of 'saturated,' 'unsaturated' and 'supersaturated.' Learn how to determine the solubility of a substance in water by using a solubility curve. Discover the effects of pressure and temperature on the solubility of liquids, solids and gases.
4. Solubility of Common Salts: Predicting Reaction Outcomes
Ever wondered why some salts dissolve in water and others don't? In this lesson you will learn about some simple salt solubility rules. Using these rules, you will be able to predict the products of many chemical reactions.
5. Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration
Learn the abbreviations and meaning of molarity and molality and go over some sample calculations with given concentrations.
6. Calculating Dilution of Solutions
Learn what a solution is and how to properly dilute a new solution from a stock solution. Learn the dilution equation that combines molarity, the volume of stock solution and desired solution to determine how much stock solution is needed for the new solution.
7. Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law
Learn how vapor pressure and osmotic pressure are colligative properties. Learn Raoult's Law and how to use it to determine the vapor pressure of a solution. Learn the equation for determining osmotic pressure and how to use it to determine the molar mass of a substance.
8. Using Colligative Properties to Determine Molar Mass
In this lesson, we will explore the effect of colligative properties on a solution. We will learn how to calculate freezing point depression and see how it can be used to calculate the molar mass of an unknown substance.
9. The Solubility of Gases in a Liquid
In this video lesson, you will learn what solubility is and the factors that affect gas solubility. We will use real-life examples to illustrate the importance of understanding solubility. A quick quiz will then test our new knowledge.
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Other chapters within the AP Chemistry: Exam Prep course
- AP Chemistry: Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Properties of Matter
- AP Chemistry: Atomic Structure
- AP Chemistry: The Periodic Table of Elements
- AP Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Bonding
- AP Chemistry: Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- AP Chemistry: Gases
- AP Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- AP Chemistry: Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions
- AP Chemistry: Equilibrium
- AP Chemistry: Kinetics
- AP Chemistry: Thermodynamics
- AP Chemistry: Organic Chemistry
- Portions of the AP Chemistry Exam
- AP Chemistry Flashcards