About This Chapter
AP Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Stoichiometry is a branch of chemistry that involves the quantities of reactants and products on both sides of the equations that illustrate chemical reactions. In this chapter, our instructors will show you how to make calculations using moles in combination with other known quantities to answer questions about chemical reactions. You'll learn how to calculate how much product will be produced in a reaction and what might limit that production. Our lessons are broken down into smaller topics so you can learn about these calculations individually. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- How to balance chemical equations
- How to calculate moles and masses of reactants and products
- How to identify a limiting reactant
- How to determine empirical formulas for elements in a compound
|Chemical Reactions and Balancing Chemical Equations||Learn what to observe when a chemical reaction takes place and how to write the equation for that reaction.|
|Mole-to-Mole Ratios and Calculations of a Chemical Equation||Understand how to use moles to relate two substances in a chemical equation and calculate their numbers.|
|Mass-to-Mass Stoichiometric Calculations||Explore how to use masses to relate substances on both sides of a chemical equation.|
|Stoichiometry: Calculating Relative Quantities in a Gas or Solution||Examine the calculations involved in reactions with gases or solutions of substances.|
|Limiting Reactants and Calculating Excess Reactants||Understand how to determine which reactant limits the reaction and calculate the excess amount of that reactant.|
|Calculating Reaction Yield and Percentage Yield from a Limiting Reactant||Learn how to use the limiting reactant to calculate the ideal reaction yield and percentage yield.|
|Calculating Percent Composition and Determining Empirical Formulas||Explore how to use percent composition of an element in a compound to determine the empirical formula for that element.|
|Hydrates: Determining the Chemical Formula From Empirical Data||Take a look at substances that contain water and how to make calculations involving these hydrates.|
1. Chemical Reactions and Balancing Chemical Equations
In this lesson, you'll learn how to balance a chemical reaction equation using the conservation of matter law. You'll also learn how to write both word and formula equations, what the subscripts after a letter mean and what the numbers in front of compounds mean.
2. Mole-to-Mole Ratios and Calculations of a Chemical Equation
Learn what a mole ratio is and how to determine and write the mole ratio relating two substances in a chemical equation in this video lesson. Also, learn to make mole-to-mole calculations and solve problems involving moles of substances.
3. Mass-to-Mass Stoichiometric Calculations
Learn how to set up and make mole to mass, mass to mole and mass to mass stoichiometric calculations. Learn how the ratios of moles helps you compare and make calculations. Learn how to relate mole ratios to molar mass.
4. Stoichiometry: Calculating Relative Quantities in a Gas or Solution
In this lesson, learn about molar volume and how to set up and make stoichiometric calculations with gases. Then learn about solution stoichiometry and how to make stoichiometric calculations with solutions.
5. Limiting Reactants & Calculating Excess Reactants
In this lesson, you'll learn what limiting reactant and excess reactant mean and how to determine which reactant is limiting in a chemical reaction when given the amount of each reactant. You'll also discover how to calculate the amount of product produced.
6. Calculating Reaction Yield and Percentage Yield from a Limiting Reactant
Learn what the theoretical yield, actual yield and percent yield are. Given the limiting reactant, learn how to calculate the theoretical reaction yield, which is also known as the ideal reaction yield and percentage yield.
7. Calculating Percent Composition and Determining Empirical Formulas
Learn the difference between the empirical formula and chemical formula. Learn how to calculate the percent composition of an element in a compound. Learn how, if given a percent composition, to determine the empirical formula for a compound.
8. Hydrates: Determining the Chemical Formula From Empirical Data
Learn the definition of a hydrate and an anhydrate in this lesson. Discover how, when given experimental data, you can determine the formula of a hydrate by following simple steps that include finding the moles of hydrate and anhydrate and comparing the two to write the formula.
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Other chapters within the AP Chemistry: Exam Prep course
- AP Chemistry: Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Properties of Matter
- AP Chemistry: Atomic Structure
- AP Chemistry: The Periodic Table of Elements
- AP Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Bonding
- AP Chemistry: Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- AP Chemistry: Gases
- AP Chemistry: Solutions
- AP Chemistry: Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions
- AP Chemistry: Equilibrium
- AP Chemistry: Kinetics
- AP Chemistry: Thermodynamics
- AP Chemistry: Organic Chemistry
- Portions of the AP Chemistry Exam
- AP Chemistry Flashcards