About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering AP chemistry material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn AP chemistry. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding state functions in thermochemistry or the laws of thermodynamics
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about thermodynamics
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Thermodynamics chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Thermodynamics chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any thermodynamics question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a thermodynamics unit of a standard AP chemistry course. Topics covered include:
- First and second laws of thermodynamics
- Hess's law
- Bond energy
- Free energy
- Endothermic and exothermic reactions
1. The Laws of Thermodynamics
Learn about the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Find out how energy is generated, how it converts from one form to another, and what happens to energy in a closed system.
2. State Functions in Thermochemistry
This lesson defines state functions and explains why state functions are so useful in thermochemistry and thermodynamics. You'll also see a few examples of common state functions.
3. Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical Processes
This video explores the relationship between chemistry and energy. We learn the general properties of energy and the concepts of temperature and heat. We will learn about energy flow and consider the enthalpy change during chemical reactions.
4. Bond Energy: Definition & Equation
Chemical reactions involve the breaking and forming of chemical bonds. In this video lesson, we will learn about bond energy and how we can use it to measure the overall energy change of a chemical reaction.
5. Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a Reaction
Want to make sure you don't blow yourself up during a chemical reaction? This lesson will help you avoid this by teaching you Hess's Law. This is one way to calculate the heat transferred, or enthalpy change, of a chemical reaction.
6. Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity
This video lesson explains the technique of calorimetry used to measure heat transfer in chemical reactions. You will see how different materials have different specific heat capacities. You will learn how to carry out heat calculations using a simple equation.
7. Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical Changes
Ever wonder why your bedroom always ends up a mess within hours of you tidying up? That is the magic of entropy. In this lesson, you'll learn why disorder is the natural state of matter and how we can predict entropy change in a physical or chemical reaction.
8. Free Energy: Predicting the Spontaneity of a Reaction
Ever heard the phrase 'pushing Jell-O uphill on a hot day'? This describes a hopeless task. In this lesson, we will predict hopeful and hopeless reactions. Or put scientifically, predicting spontaneous (hopeful) and non-spontaneous (hopeless) reactions.
9. The Relationship Between Enthalpy (H), Free Energy (G) and Entropy (S)
In this video lesson, we'll study free energy (G) and its relationship to enthalpy, entropy and temperature. You'll also learn why free energy (G) is the single most useful criterion for predicting the spontaneity and direction of a chemical reaction.
10. Electrochemistry: Free Energy and Cell Potential Energy
Our modern lives are totally dependent on electricity. In this lesson, we learn about electricity spontaneously produced by electrochemical cells or batteries. We make the link between the potential energy they produce and Gibbs free energy.
11. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Explore a chemical reaction at the molecular level. Learn about exothermic and endothermic reactions, what they look like and what happens when they occur. Understand enthalpy and how you can use it to predict whether a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic.
12. Entropy in Chemistry: Definition & Law
In this lesson, we'll define chemical entropy as a thermodynamic function, discuss positional entropy as it relates to the states of matter, and state the second law of thermodynamics.
13. Negative Entropy: Definition & Meaning
In this lesson, we will learn about negative entropy and how it relates to the second law of thermodynamics. We will learn about what entropy is and what it means to be in a state of negative entropy.
14. Bond Order: Definition, Formula & Examples
This lesson is an introduction to the concept of bond order, including its calculation in simple molecules and resonance structures. You'll understand these ideas a little better if you're familiar with molecular orbital theory.
15. Effect of Catalysts on Rates of Reaction
In this video lesson, we will learn how catalysts speed up chemical reactions. We'll also discuss how catalysts are used in industry and consider the catalysts in our own bodies. A short quiz will test your new knowledge.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the AP Chemistry: Help and Review course
- AP Chemistry: Experimental Laboratory Chemistry: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Properties of Matter: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Atomic Structure: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: The Periodic Table of Elements: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Bonding: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Gases: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Solutions: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Equilibrium: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Kinetics: Help and Review
- AP Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: Help and Review
- Portions of the AP Chemistry Exam: Help and Review