About This Chapter
AP Chemistry: Thermodynamics - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Reactions that involve heat and energy are studied in a branch of science called thermodynamics. In this chapter, our instructors will explain the theories of this field, from how energy and heat are related to how they function in chemical reactions. You'll learn about the energy in chemical bonds, the transference of energy, and how temperature affects thermochemical systems. This chapter is broken down into smaller lessons that focus on topics in thermodynamics like enthalpy, catalysts, and calorimetry. You'll learn how to balance equations of these reactions, calculating the heat and energy involved. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- The law of thermodynamics
- How heat and energy move through a chemical reaction
- About reactions that use or give off heat
- To write equations for thermochemical reactions
|The Laws of Thermodynamics||Understand the basic laws ruling the study of relations between heat, energy, and work.|
|State Functions in Thermochemistry||Learn about the importance of the properties of systems that depend only on the current state.|
|Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical Processes||Explore the different ways that energy can be transferred in physical and chemical processes using thermochemical equations.|
|Bond Energy: Breaking the Bond||Examine the energy and heat involved in creating and breaking chemical bonds.|
|Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a Reaction||Discover the relationship of enthalpy change to the steps of a reaction and calculate these changes.|
|Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity||Understand the measurement of heat of chemical reactions or physical changes and how to calculate the heat transferred.|
|Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical Changes||Learn about the flow of energy through a thermodynamic process and how to calculate it.|
|Free Energy: Predicting and Spontaneity of a Reaction||Explore the amount of work a thermodynamic system can perform and the effect of temperature on these reactions.|
|The Relationship Between Enthalpy (H), Free Energy (G), and Entropy (S)||Examine how to calculate these values at a given temperature when you have two known values.|
|Electrochemistry: Free Energy and Cell Potential Energy||Discover chemical reactions that involve electron transfer between an electrode and an electrolyte.|
|Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions||Understand how reactions can use energy or give off energy and how this can be measured.|
|Catalysts and Energy Diagrams||Take a look at reaction diagrams to understand the effects of a catalyst in a solution.|
1. The Laws of Thermodynamics
Learn about the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Find out how energy is generated, how it converts from one form to another, and what happens to energy in a closed system.
2. State Functions in Thermochemistry
This lesson defines state functions and explains why state functions are so useful in thermochemistry and thermodynamics. You'll also see a few examples of common state functions.
3. Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical Processes
This video explores the relationship between chemistry and energy. We learn the general properties of energy and the concepts of temperature and heat. We will learn about energy flow and consider the enthalpy change during chemical reactions.
4. Bond Energy: Definition & Equation
Chemical reactions involve the breaking and forming of chemical bonds. In this video lesson, we will learn about bond energy and how we can use it to measure the overall energy change of a chemical reaction.
5. Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a Reaction
Want to make sure you don't blow yourself up during a chemical reaction? This lesson will help you avoid this by teaching you Hess's Law. This is one way to calculate the heat transferred, or enthalpy change, of a chemical reaction.
6. Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity
This video lesson explains the technique of calorimetry used to measure heat transfer in chemical reactions. You will see how different materials have different specific heat capacities. You will learn how to carry out heat calculations using a simple equation.
7. Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical Changes
Ever wonder why your bedroom always ends up a mess within hours of you tidying up? That is the magic of entropy. In this lesson, you'll learn why disorder is the natural state of matter and how we can predict entropy change in a physical or chemical reaction.
8. Free Energy: Predicting the Spontaneity of a Reaction
Ever heard the phrase 'pushing Jell-O uphill on a hot day'? This describes a hopeless task. In this lesson, we will predict hopeful and hopeless reactions. Or put scientifically, predicting spontaneous (hopeful) and non-spontaneous (hopeless) reactions.
9. The Relationship Between Enthalpy (H), Free Energy (G) and Entropy (S)
In this video lesson, we'll study free energy (G) and its relationship to enthalpy, entropy and temperature. You'll also learn why free energy (G) is the single most useful criterion for predicting the spontaneity and direction of a chemical reaction.
10. Electrochemistry: Free Energy and Cell Potential Energy
Our modern lives are totally dependent on electricity. In this lesson, we learn about electricity spontaneously produced by electrochemical cells or batteries. We make the link between the potential energy they produce and Gibbs free energy.
11. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Explore a chemical reaction at the molecular level. Learn about exothermic and endothermic reactions, what they look like and what happens when they occur. Understand enthalpy and how you can use it to predict whether a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic.
12. Effect of Catalysts on Rates of Reaction
In this video lesson, we will learn how catalysts speed up chemical reactions. We'll also discuss how catalysts are used in industry and consider the catalysts in our own bodies. A short quiz will test your new knowledge.
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Other chapters within the AP Chemistry: Exam Prep course
- AP Chemistry: Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Properties of Matter
- AP Chemistry: Atomic Structure
- AP Chemistry: The Periodic Table of Elements
- AP Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry
- AP Chemistry: Bonding
- AP Chemistry: Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- AP Chemistry: Gases
- AP Chemistry: Solutions
- AP Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- AP Chemistry: Equilibrium
- AP Chemistry: Kinetics
- Portions of the AP Chemistry Exam
- AP Chemistry Flashcards