About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering European history material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn European history. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding scientific experimentation leading up to the Scientific Revolution or the teachings of Ptolemy
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning history (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra history learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment unit of a standard AP European history course. Topics covered include:
- The beliefs and biography of Thomas Hobbes
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau's legacy
- Reason, science and logic of the pre-Scientific Revolution
- Influence of Thomas Aquinas on the Catholic Church
- Ptolemy and the Ptolemaic system
- Discoveries of Tycho Brahe and Copernicus
- The telescope, the Church and Galileo
- Science during the Enlightenment period
- Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas, including Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, Blaise Pascal, and Rene Descartes
- Biographies of Immanuel Kant and Baron de Montesquieu
- The encyclopedia and Denis Diderot
- Contributors to the Scottish Enlightenment
- Jurisprudence and the theories of Cesare Beccaria
- The roles of women during the Enlightenment
1. Pre-Scientific Revolution: Logic, Reason & Scientific Experimentation
In this lesson, we explore the reasons behind the typical narrative surrounding the Middle Ages and the advances in reason and science made during this period.
2. Thomas Aquinas' Influence on the Catholic Church
St. Thomas Aquinas was perhaps the most important figure of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. This lesson examines what he did to help protect the Church against a rebirth of critical thinking by using critical thinking to defend the Church.
3. Ptolemy and the Ptolemaic System
In this lesson, we explore the work of the ancient Greco-Egyptian philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer, Ptolemy, whose system explaining the structure of the universe was believed for centuries.
4. Tycho Brahe and Copernicus Take On the Known Universe
Astronomy according to Ptolemy was the popular theory until Copernicus turned it on its head. This lesson explores the theories of Copernicus and Brahe and how the two changed astronomical study.
5. Galileo, the Telescope & the Church
This lesson explores the contributions of Galileo to modern science. It examines his early steps toward a scientific method, his work on falling bodies and, of course, his astronomical discoveries. Finally, the Church's reaction to these discoveries is explored.
6. Science During the Enlightenment Period: Innovations, Discoveries & Major Figures
In this lesson, we will learn about the Scientific Revolution that preceded the Enlightenment. We will highlight the major themes, innovations, discoveries, and figures associated with this revolution in science.
7. Rene Descartes and the Union of Religion and Philosophy
This lesson explores the beliefs and works of Rene Descartes and how he explained the relationship between the mind and body as well as religion and science.
8. Francis Bacon: History, Ideas and Legacy
This lesson examines the contributions of Sir Francis Bacon to science. We take a long hard look at the scientific method, with special emphasis on experimental science. Then we briefly examine how Bacon sold science to the world.
9. Blaise Pascal: Biography & Contributions to Science and Philosophy
In this lesson, we will learn about the 17th-century French mathematician, scientist, and philosopher Blaise Pascal, who invented a rudimentary calculator in addition to making significant contributions to math and philosophy.
10. Thomas Hobbes: Absolutism, Politics & Famous Works
In this lesson, we discuss one the key political theorists of the 17th century, the Englishman Thomas Hobbes, whose theories concerning absolutism, the basis of government, and human nature still resonate to this day.
11. The Enlightenment Thinkers & Their Ideas
In this lesson, we discuss the varied and diverse 18th-century intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment. In addition to exploring its background and nature, we highlight several of the era's chief philosophers and their ideas.
12. Immanuel Kant: Biography & German Enlightenment
In this lesson, we explore the life and philosophy of arguably the German Enlightenment's greatest philosopher, Immanuel Kant, and his theories concerning ethics.
13. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Philosophy and Legacy
In this lesson, we will learn about a famous philosopher named Jean-Jacques Rousseau. We will understand the specific views he advanced and identify his contributions to the field of philosophy.
14. Baron de Montesquieu: Biography, Theories & Philosophy
In this lesson, we explore the life and theories of the the French Enlightenment's foremost political theorist, Charles-Louis de Secondat - more commonly known as Montesquieu.
15. Denis Diderot and the Encyclopedia
In this lesson, we explore the life of the 18th-century French philosopher Denis Diderot and the project that eventually consumed over 30 years of his life, the Encyclopedia.
16. Scottish Enlightenment: Hume, Smith, and Others
In this lesson, we discuss several leading thinkers of the Scottish Enlightenment, including its two giants, the philosophers David Hume and Adam Smith.
17. Cesare Beccaria: Theories, Impact & Jurisprudence
In this lesson, we explore the life and theories of the Italian man who first formulated many of the theories upon which our modern penal systems operate: Cesare Beccaria.
18. Women During the Enlightenment: Roles & Treatment
In this lesson, we explore the traditional gender roles for women in 18th century Europe and how the Enlightenment affected attitudes that encouraged future change.
19. Thomas Hobbes: Biography, Beliefs & Quotes
Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher, political scientist, academic, historian, and journalist in the 17th century. He is best known for his book 'Leviathan' (1651) and his views on how politics affects society.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 160 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the AP European History: Help and Review course
- AP European History - Overview of the Renaissance: Help and Review
- AP European History - Renaissance Philosophy: Help & Review
- AP European History - Reformation Roots & Teachings: Help and Review
- AP History - The Reformation Across Europe: Help & Review
- AP European History - Wars of Religion: Help and Review
- AP European History - The Age of Expansion: Help and Review
- How Monarchical Nation States Developed: Help and Review
- AP European History - English History (1450-1700): Help and Review
- AP European History - 18th Century Powers: Help and Review
- AP European History - The French Revolution: Help and Review
- AP European History - The Napoleonic Empire: Help and Review
- AP European History - Western Revolutionary Movements of the 19th Century: Help and Review
- AP European History - Central Revolutionary Movements of the 19th Century: Help and Review
- AP European History - First Industrial Revolution: Help & Review
- AP European History - Second Industrial Revolution: Help & Review
- Nation States Unification in the 19th Century: Help & Review
- AP European History - Europe 1871-1914: Help and Review
- AP European History - World War I: Help and Review
- AP European History - Russia After World War I: Help and Review
- AP European History - The 1920s & 1930s: Help and Review
- AP European History - The Rise of Fascism: Help and Review
- AP European History - World War II: Help and Review
- AP European History - Post-war Europe: Help and Review
- AP European History - Cold War Europe: Help and Review
- AP European History - After the Soviet Union: Help & Review
- Portions of the AP European History Exam: Help and Review
- Help & Review for Writing a Good Essay on the AP European History Exam
- AP European History Exam Essay: Help & Review