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- Learn about scientific experimentation, logic and reason during the medieval period.
- Explain how Thomas Aquinas influenced Church beliefs.
- Take a look at Ptolemy's model of the universe.
- Discuss Tycho Brahe's and Copernicus's views of the universe.
- Understand how the Church received Galileo's discoveries.
- Describe the innovations and discoveries that came about during the Enlightenment.
- Learn how Rene Descartes's beliefs bridged religion and philosophy.
- Become familiar with the ideas of Francis Bacon.
- Take a look at the scientific and philosophical contributions of Blaise Pascal.
- Discuss the political beliefs of Thomas Hobbes.
- Describe the ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers.
- Understand the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
- Learn about the prominent figures of the German Enlightenment.
- Become familiar with the political theories of Baron de Montesquieu.
- Take a look at the founding of the encyclopedia by Diderot and d'Alembert.
- Discuss Scottish contributors to the Enlightenment.
- Explain how Cesare Beccaria's legal theories impacted Italian and European society.
- Describe the role and treatment of women during the Enlightenment.
1. Pre-Scientific Revolution: Logic, Reason & Scientific Experimentation
In this lesson, we explore the reasons behind the typical narrative surrounding the Middle Ages and the advances in reason and science made during this period.
2. Thomas Aquinas' Influence on the Catholic Church
St. Thomas Aquinas was perhaps the most important figure of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. This lesson examines what he did to help protect the Church against a rebirth of critical thinking by using critical thinking to defend the Church.
3. Ptolemy and the Ptolemaic System
In this lesson, we explore the work of the ancient Greco-Egyptian philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer, Ptolemy, whose system explaining the structure of the universe was believed for centuries.
4. Tycho Brahe and Copernicus Take On the Known Universe
Astronomy according to Ptolemy was the popular theory until Copernicus turned it on its head. This lesson explores the theories of Copernicus and Brahe and how the two changed astronomical study.
5. Galileo, the Telescope & the Church
This lesson explores the contributions of Galileo to modern science. It examines his early steps toward a scientific method, his work on falling bodies and, of course, his astronomical discoveries. Finally, the Church's reaction to these discoveries is explored.
6. Science During the Enlightenment Period: Innovations, Discoveries & Major Figures
In this lesson, we will learn about the Scientific Revolution that preceded the Enlightenment. We will highlight the major themes, innovations, discoveries, and figures associated with this revolution in science.
7. Rene Descartes and the Union of Religion and Philosophy
This lesson explores the beliefs and works of Rene Descartes and how he explained the relationship between the mind and body as well as religion and science.
8. Francis Bacon: History, Ideas and Legacy
This lesson examines the contributions of Sir Francis Bacon to science. We take a long hard look at the scientific method, with special emphasis on experimental science. Then we briefly examine how Bacon sold science to the world.
9. Blaise Pascal: Biography & Contributions to Science and Philosophy
In this lesson, we will learn about the 17th-century French mathematician, scientist, and philosopher Blaise Pascal, who invented a rudimentary calculator in addition to making significant contributions to math and philosophy.
10. Thomas Hobbes: Absolutism, Politics & Famous Works
In this lesson, we discuss one the key political theorists of the 17th century, the Englishman Thomas Hobbes, whose theories concerning absolutism, the basis of government, and human nature still resonate to this day.
11. The Enlightenment Thinkers & Their Ideas
In this lesson, we discuss the varied and diverse 18th-century intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment. In addition to exploring its background and nature, we highlight several of the era's chief philosophers and their ideas.
12. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Philosophy and Legacy
In this lesson, we will learn about a famous philosopher named Jean-Jacques Rousseau. We will understand the specific views he advanced and identify his contributions to the field of philosophy.
13. Immanuel Kant: Biography & German Enlightenment
In this lesson, we explore the life and philosophy of arguably the German Enlightenment's greatest philosopher, Immanuel Kant, and his theories concerning ethics.
14. Baron de Montesquieu: Biography, Theories & Philosophy
In this lesson, we explore the life and theories of the the French Enlightenment's foremost political theorist, Charles-Louis de Secondat - more commonly known as Montesquieu.
15. Denis Diderot and the Encyclopedia
In this lesson, we explore the life of the 18th-century French philosopher Denis Diderot and the project that eventually consumed over 30 years of his life, the Encyclopedia.
16. Scottish Enlightenment: Hume, Smith, and Others
In this lesson, we discuss several leading thinkers of the Scottish Enlightenment, including its two giants, the philosophers David Hume and Adam Smith.
17. Cesare Beccaria: Theories, Impact & Jurisprudence
In this lesson, we explore the life and theories of the Italian man who first formulated many of the theories upon which our modern penal systems operate: Cesare Beccaria.
18. Women During the Enlightenment: Roles & Treatment
In this lesson, we explore the traditional gender roles for women in 18th century Europe and how the Enlightenment affected attitudes that encouraged future change.
19. Olympe de Gouges: Biography & Quotes
In the 18th century, Olympe de Gouges spoke out about issues that no one else wanted to talk about. In this lesson, we'll go over the life and works of Olympe de Gouges, and see how far she was willing to go to make her voice heard.
20. Olympe de Gouges' Declaration of the Rights of Woman
Olympe de Gouges was a French political and social activist who is most well-known for writing the ''Declaration of the Rights of Woman'' following the French Revolution.
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