About This Chapter
AP Physics 1: Newton's Laws - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Isaac Newton is often considered one of the most influential scientists of all time, and his contributions to physics are part of the field's foundation. In this chapter, you'll learn about Newton's three laws of motion and how they are applied to physics problems. Our instructors have divided this chapter into smaller lessons so you can learn about the laws and their related concepts one at a time. You'll get real examples to explain acceleration, friction, forces, and more. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- What Newton's laws of motion state
- How to determine the force acting on an object
- How to calculate acceleration
- How to identify action-reaction force pairs
- How to draw free-body diagrams
|Newton's First Law of Motion: Examples of the Effect of Force on Motion||Learn about uniform motion, or how an object continues to do what it is doing.|
|Distinguishing Between Inertia and Mass||Understand the effect that an object's mass has on inertia, or the resistance to change.|
|Mass and Weight: Differences and Calculations||Calculate the weight of an object of known mass.|
|State of Motion and Velocity||Describe how velocity is used to define the state of motion of an object.|
|Force: Definition and Types||Take a look at what can cause an object to undergo a change and how to categorize these forces.|
|Forces: Balanced and Unbalanced||Dissect this term from Newton's first law to understand how a force can change an object's position, momentum, or speed.|
|Free-Body Diagrams||See how physicists visually represent forces in a system using these diagrams.|
|Net Force: Definition and Calculations||Examine how to determine an object's net force.|
|Newton's Second Law of Motion: The Relationship Between Force and Acceleration||Learn about acceleration and its relationship to the net force acting on an object.|
|Determining the Acceleration of an Object||Understand how to calculate the acceleration, or increase in velocity, of an object in motion.|
|Determining the Individual Forces Acting Upon an Object||Explore how to decide which types of forces are acting on an object in motion.|
|Air Resistance and Free Fall||Take a look at the effect of air resistance on falling objects and what free fall truly means.|
|Newton's Third Law of Motion: Examples of the Relationship Between Two Forces||Learn how forces occur in opposite and equal pairs, making all forces interactions.|
|Newton's Laws and Weight, Mass, and Gravity||Understand the relationship between the laws of motion and the parameters of an object.|
|Identifying Action and Reaction Force Pairs||Explore ways to figure out which forces are paired together as actions and reactions.|
|The Normal Force: Definition and Examples||Take a look at the force that is exerted simply by an object being perpendicular to a surface.|
|Friction: Definition and Types||See how elements sliding against each other creates a force that needs to be taken into account.|
|Inclined Planes in Physics: Definition, Facts, and Examples||Understand the forces inherent on an angled plane, including friction and normal force.|
1. Newton's First Law of Motion: Examples of the Effect of Force on Motion
This lesson describes Newton's first law of motion, also known as the law of inertia. The interaction between force and motion is explained. Several examples are used to discuss the implications of this law on earth and in space.
2. Distinguishing Between Inertia and Mass
Mass and inertia are both related to the amount of matter an object has, but they aren't exactly the same thing. In this video lesson, you'll see how mass affects an object's inertia, which in turn affects that object's motion.
3. Mass and Weight: Differences and Calculations
We often talk about mass and weight as if they are the same. While they are proportional to each other, they are not, in fact, the same. In this video lesson, you will learn to distinguish between the two, as well as convert one to the other.
4. State of Motion and Velocity
An object's state of motion describes how it is moving. But there are many ways we can describe motion, such as speed and velocity. This motion is relative to other objects around it, such as the earth, the sun, and even other stars in our galaxy.
5. Force: Definition and Types
Force is everywhere and it comes in a variety of sizes, directions, and types. In this video lesson, you'll identify force as well the different types of force that objects may experience.
6. Forces: Balanced and Unbalanced
Forces are needed to start or stop an object's motion, but can also be involved when an object is at rest or already traveling at constant velocity. In this video lesson, you'll identify the difference between balanced and unbalanced forces, understanding how they affect the movement of objects.
7. Free-Body Diagrams
Forces that act on an object can be drawn through special vector diagrams called free-body diagrams. In this video lesson you'll identify how to correctly represent forces in a free-body diagram through vector arrows and force labels.
8. Solving Mathematical Representations of Free-Body Diagrams
A free-body diagram is a visual way to represent the forces acting on a mass. This lesson will go through how to set up and solve the mathematical expressions required to determine the acceleration of the mass.
9. How to Use Free-Body Diagrams to Solve Motion Problems
The free-body diagram is a powerful way to analyze forces in a scenario. This lesson describes the rules you should follow when using a free-body diagram, and includes multiple examples modeling how to solve force problems.
10. Net Force: Definition and Calculations
Because forces are vectors, we can't simply add them up to get a total amount of force on an object. Instead, we calculate the net force, which is important to understand because it tells us about an object's state of motion.
11. Force & Motion: Physics Lab
When learning about forces and motion, it is helpful to conduct a hands-on activity. In this lesson, we will do an activity relating force and motion by analyzing a mass that is swung in a horizontal circle.
12. Newton's Second Law of Motion: The Relationship Between Force and Acceleration
This lesson defines Newton's second law of motion. Examples are used to illustrate how unbalanced forces cause objects to accelerate. The examples are used to practice calculating acceleration and force for objects in motion.
13. Determining the Acceleration of an Object
Acceleration is a change in an object's state of motion. A few variables need to be identified to calculate an object's acceleration, but once we have those values, we can put them into a simple equation to find out how quickly or slowly an object's velocity is changing.
14. Action and Reaction Forces: Law & Examples
Action force is force acting in one direction. Reaction force is force acting in the opposite direction. Learn more about Newton's Third Law as it explains action and reaction forces through several examples, and test your knowledge with quiz questions.
15. Determining the Individual Forces Acting Upon an Object
Objects constantly have forces acting on them whether they are moving or at rest. In this video lesson, you'll understand how to identify the individual forces acting on an object by reviewing the different types of forces and the use of free-body diagrams.
16. Implications of Mechanics on Objects
Forces act on objects causing them to move. Mechanics is the field of science designated to the study of moving objects. This lesson describes how forces act on objects resulting in motion. Examples are used to describe how forces interact resulting in both simple and complex movement.
17. Air Resistance and Free Fall
Through experiments by Galileo and Newton, we can understand why all objects in free-fall experience the same acceleration, ''g''. We can also see why air resistance affects a falling object's velocity and how this can lead to a falling object reaching a terminal velocity.
18. Newton's Third Law of Motion: Examples of the Relationship Between Two Forces
This lesson describes Newton's third law of motion. Examples are provided to illustrate how interacting objects experience forces. The lesson explains how objects accelerate as a result of force. Applications of Newton's third law are illustrated in nature, machines, and space.
19. Newton's Laws and Weight, Mass & Gravity
Did you know that mass and weight are not the same? This lesson describes the difference between the two as well as the effect of gravity on weight. Examples are used to teach you how to calculate weight based on mass and acceleration of gravity.
20. Identifying Action and Reaction Force Pairs
Good things often come in pairs, and forces are no exception. In this lesson you'll explore Newton's second and third laws of motion to understand how action and reaction pairs affect objects interacting with each other.
21. The Normal Force: Definition and Examples
The normal force is also called the contact force because it only exists when objects are touching. In this lesson, we will investigate what the normal force is and how to calculate it on flat and inclined surfaces.
22. Friction: Definition and Types
You experience friction all the time, and you should be glad you do! Friction helps keep stationary objects in place as well as slow moving objects down as they slide across a surface. This lesson identifies what friction is and explains the two ways we find this force on earth.
23. Inclined Planes in Physics: Definition, Facts, and Examples
If an object is not horizontal to the ground, it may be on an inclined plane. We need to adjust both the calculations and the free-body diagram when determining the net force on an object on an inclined plane. Learn how in this lesson.
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