About This Chapter
The Medieval Warm Period - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The Medieval Warm Period refers to a cycle of temperate weather in the North Atlantic that began in 950 A.D. and ended in 1250 A.D. In this chapter, you'll learn about the dramatic historical events and technological developments that occurred in Western Europe during this distinct period in time. These include major religious conflicts and the Norman conquest of medieval England.
Through a series of engaging video tutorials, you'll meet some of the key players of the period, such as William the Conqueror, a descendant of the Vikings and the first Norman king of England, Henry II and Thomas Becket. You'll also find out about the irrevocable dispute that divided Christianity into the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches. The growth of Islam and the subsequent activities of the Crusaders in the Holy Land will also be covered.
When you've completed this chapter, you should feel comfortable answering questions about:
- Climate changes and agricultural developments in medieval Europe
- The major religious power struggles of the period, including the Crusades, the Great Schism and the Investiture Controversy
- Anglo-Saxon and Norman conflicts and the use of the Bayeux Tapestry as a historical record
- The dispute between Henry II and Thomas Becket that led to the death of the latter
- Romanesque art and architecture
- The renaissance of cities and towns during the Medieval Warm Period
|The Medieval Warm Period and New Agricultural Technologies||Understand how climate shifts and new agricultural technologies, such as the horse collar and heavy plow, changed everyday life in Western Europe.|
|The Great Schism between the East and Western Churches||Describe the clerical and theological break that occurred between the Eastern and Western churches.|
|William the Conqueror and Politics and Art in the Dark Ages||Discuss the conflict between the Anglo-Saxons and the Normans, including its development and influence on English language and politics as evidenced through the Bayeux Tapestry.|
|The Roman Catholic Clergy||Explain the hierarchical structure of the Catholic Church, including the roles of the pope and village priests.|
|The Investiture Conflict: Rulers vs. the Centralized Church||Describe the first major conflict that occurred between the centralized church and the state.|
|The Four Lateran Councils: The Rules and Decisions||Provide a brief summary of the Lateran Councils and their ecumenical decisions.|
|Windmills, Water Wheels and Labor Savers in the Dark Ages||Discuss how these new technologies developed and revolutionized Western Europe.|
|Henry II of England and Philip Augustus of France||Summarize the historical events that occurred in Western Europe during the dynastic reigns of Henry II and Philip Augustus.|
|Thomas Becket and the Constitution of Clarendon||Describe the consequential role of the Archbishop of Canterbury in the Council of Clarendon.|
|Romanesque Art: History, Characteristics and Style||Describe the historical development and unique features of Romanesque art.|
|Romanesque Architecture: Characteristics, Examples and History||Provide an historical overview of Romanesque architecture, including its distinct properties and examples.|
|The First Crusade: Causes and Effects||Examine the start and results of the First Crusade.|
|The Great Crusades: History and Timeline||Explain the origins and development of the Great Crusades.|
|Results and Impact of the Crusades||Identify the accomplishments and failures of the Crusades, including their lasting impact on the West.|
|The Reemergence of Towns and Commerce||Understand how historical events in medieval Europe contributed to the return of cities and towns.|
1. The Medieval Warm Period and New Agricultural Technologies
In this lesson, we explore the factors that brought about Europe's Medieval Agricultural Revolution. We look at the climate of Europe and the key agricultural technologies and techniques that revolutionized agriculture: the heavy plow, the horse collar & the three field crop rotation system.
2. The Great Schism Between the East and Western Churches
This lesson will define and explain the Great Schism, which led to the formation of Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. In doing so, it will highlight the political and cultural factors that led to the the great divide.
3. William the Conqueror & Politics and Art in the Dark Ages
This lesson will explore the life and deeds of William the Conqueror. In exploring the political backdrop of the Dark Ages, it will highlight the Battle of Hastings, the Bayeux Tapestry, and the Domesday Book.
4. The Roman Catholic Clergy
This lesson will list and describe the different members of the Medieval clergy. Beginning at the lower levels and ending with the Pope, it will outline the duties of each office.
5. The Investiture Conflict: Rulers vs. the Centralized Church
This lesson will explore the Investiture Conflict of the 11th and 12th centuries. In doing so, it will highlight the roles of Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV. It will also explain the Concordat of Worms.
6. The 4 Lateran Councils: The Rules and Decisions
This lesson will discuss the Four Lateran Councils held between the years 1123 and 1215 CE. In doing so, it will explore and highlight the main themes and decisions of each.
7. Windmills, Water Wheels and Labor Savers in the Dark Ages
This lesson explores the advent of mechanized labor in Medieval Europe. We note the frenzied pace of wind and watermill construction in Europe. We examine the causes of this phenomenon and hypothesize on its implications.
8. Henry II of England and Philip Augustus of France
This lesson will explore the reigns of the Angevin Plantagenet kings of England, Henry II, Richard I, and John. It will also highlight their dealings with Philip Augustus of France.
9. Thomas Becket and the Constitutions of Clarendon
This lesson will explain the power struggle between Church and State in medieval England. It will focus on King Henry II, Thomas Becket, and the Constitutions of Clarendon.
10. Social & Economic Influences on Romanesque Art & Architecture
The Romanesque style developed at a time when there were many changes going on. Learn how influences such as growing economies, larger populations, and political stability helped shape Romanesque art and architecture.
11. The First Crusade: Causes and Effects
This lesson covers the motivations of Pope Urban II in calling for the crusade at Clermont and at the religious and secular motivations of European laymen. We will also look at the startling success of the first crusade.
12. The Great Crusades: History and Timeline
This lesson examines the utter failure of the later crusades. We look at some of the factors that led to this failure. We then have a glimpse at each of the major crusades abroad, as well as the political and heretical crusades in Europe.
13. Results and Impact of the Crusades
This lesson explores the results and impact of the Crusades. We examine the social impact, the political impact and the economic impact of three centuries of crusading.
14. The Reemergence of Towns and Commerce
This lesson explores the urban revolution of the 12th century. We will examine the causes, especially the resurgence of trade, and then look at the various factors that made the revolution possible. Finally, we will discuss the impact of this revolution on Medieval Europe.
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Other chapters within the AP World History: Exam Prep course
- AP World History: Foundational Concepts
- AP World History: Major Belief Systems
- AP World History: Ancient Times
- AP World History: Ancient Middle East
- AP World History: Ancient China, Africa, India & America
- AP World History: Ancient Greece
- AP World History: Hellenism and Athenian Philosophy
- AP World History: The Rise of the Roman Republic
- AP World History: The Fall of the Roman Empire
- AP World History: The Dark Ages
- AP World History: Early Middle Ages
- AP World History: The High Middle Ages
- AP World History: Asia, Africa & America (1000-1300 CE)
- AP World History: The Late Middle Ages
- AP World History: The Renaissance
- AP World History: The Age of Exploration
- AP World History: The Reformation Across Europe
- AP World History: The Elizabethan Era
- AP World History: The Enlightenment
- AP World History: Political, Technological, and Intellectual Developments (1750-1914)
- AP World History: Colonialism
- AP World History: Imperialism
- AP World History: World War I
- AP World History: World War II
- AP World History: The Cold War and Other 20th Century World History
- AP World History: A Globalized World - 1980 & Beyond
- Portions of the AP World History Exam
- How to Write a Good Essay on Your AP Exam
- Developing and Writing Your AP Exam Essay
- AP World History Flashcards
- Additional AP World History Flashcards