About This Chapter
AP World History: The Reformation Across Europe - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The Protestant Reformation changed the state of Europe forever by challenging the reigning Catholic institution. In this chapter, you'll learn about Martin Luther and what he wrote in his 95 Theses that forever changed the way people thought about Christianity. The lessons are broken down into smaller topics that cover the Reformation in various countries, the leaders of reform, and the wars that resulted. You'll learn about political, societal, and economic change in this period of transformation. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- The differences between Protestantism and Catholicism
- Important figures in the Reformation
- Battles and wars that various countries and groups fought
- How the Reformation changed society
|Religious Warfare Across Europe During the Reformation||Learn about Christians killing other Christians in the name of Christ.|
|The Rise of the Vernacular and the Decline of Latin||Explore how the Church changed to allow commoners to read the Bible.|
|The Catholic Church Before the Reformation: Beliefs and Practices||Understand the basics of Catholicism before the Reformation.|
|Martin Luther, the 95 Theses, and the Birth of the Protestant Reformation||Examine Martin Luther's theses on reform and the movement they started.|
|Art in the Protestant Reformation: Albrecht Durer and Northern European Artists||Discover how the Protestant Reformation influenced art during this time.|
|The Spread of the Protestant Reformation Across Europe||Take a look at how the Reformation spilled into other countries in Europe.|
|Religious Reform in Switzerland: Calvin and Zwingli's Teachings in the Reformation||Learn about the Reformation's leaders and impact in Switzerland.|
|The Reformation's Impact on Germany||Explore the results of the Reformation in Germany, including the Peasants' War and the Peace of Augsburg.|
|The French Wars of Religion: Catholics vs. the Huguenots||Understand how the French fought over the reforms happening within the Church.|
|The Reformers and the Catholic Church: How Religious Beliefs Transformed During the Reformation||Examine the major principles underlying the different faiths through the transformation of beliefs in this era.|
|The Council of Trent: The Catholic Church Survives the Reformation||Discover the Catholic Church's decrees on doctrine during the Council of Trent.|
|The Six Wives of Henry VIII: Facts and History||Take a look at the women Henry VIII married and the impact this had on his kingdom and abroad.|
|Henry VIII: The Anglican Church||Learn about how Henry VIII challenged the Church in order to conceive an heir and get marriages annulled.|
|Mercenaries and the Sack of Rome||Explore the difference between mercenaries and standing armies and why this attack on the papacy came about.|
|Tycho Brahe and Copernicus Take on the Known Universe||Understand the scientific discoveries of the time and how the Church reacted to these men.|
|Ivan the Terrible and the Making of Russia||Examine some Russian history and how Ivan changed the Russian state.|
|Life After the Reformation and Protestant Influence on Society||Discover the societal changes that resulted from the Reformation, including familial, educational, and economic influences.|
|Eastern Europe During the Reformation||Take a look at what was happening in Poland, Bohemia, and Lithuania during the Reformation.|
|Russian Czars During the Reformation: Michael Romanov and Peter the Great||Learn about the transition between czars and the state of Russia during this time.|
1. Religious Warfare Across Europe During the Reformation
This lesson will explain the different wars which waged across Europe during the Reformation. It will begin with the German Peasants' Revolt and continue through the 30 Years' War, ending with the Peace of Westphalia.
2. Martin Luther, the 95 Theses and the Birth of the Protestant Reformation
This lesson covers the start of the Protestant Reformation. It begins by comparing the vast array and peacefulness of Christian denominations in modern days to the limited choices and violence of the past. Then it goes into the story of Martin Luther, from his 95 Theses through the Diet of Worms up to the beginning of the German Peasant Revolt.
3. Art in the Protestant Reformation: Albrecht Durer & Northern European Artists
The Protestant Reformation introduced some pretty substantial changes into European society. In this lesson, we'll be talking about some of the impacts it had on the art of Northern Europe.
4. The Spread of the Protestant Reformation Across Europe
In the 16th century, Martin Luther inspired people to believe that the Catholic Church shouldn't hold authority over laypeople. This lesson explores the spread of these Protestant ideas throughout Europe.
5. Religious Reform in Switzerland: Calvin & Zwingli's Teachings in the Reformation
The Protestant Reformation resulted in many people splitting from the Catholic Church. This lesson explores the effect of the Reformation in Switzerland under the leadership of Zwingli and Calvin.
6. The Reformation's Impact on Germany: The Peasant Wars
The Reformation was a time when Christianity was split into Catholicism and Protestantism. This lesson explores the major changes brought about by the Reformation in Germany in the 16th century.
7. The French Wars of Religion: Catholics vs. the Huguenots
The Protestant Reformation was so popular and controversial in Europe that it sometimes led to war. This lesson explores the violent effect of the Reformation in France as war erupted between the Catholics and the Protestants.
8. The Reformers & the Catholic Church: How Religious Beliefs Transformed During the Reformation
The Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation challenged the beliefs of the Catholic Church. This lesson explores some of the differing beliefs among Protestant and Catholic reformers.
9. The Council of Trent: The Catholic Church Survives the Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a movement of Christians who disagreed with some of the teachings and actions of the Catholic Church. This article explores the effect of the Reformation on the Church.
10. Henry VIII: The Anglican Church
This lesson covers the various steps Henry VIII took in breaking away from the Roman Catholic Church. You'll learn how Henry managed to get what he wanted by going through legal means and playing off of others who also had problems with the Church.
11. Mercenaries and the Sack of Rome
Politics led Charles de Bourbon, a rich French Duke, to flee his country to fight for his cousin, the Holy Roman Emperor. This lesson explains how financing and the use of mercenaries by Bourbon led to the sack of Rome in 1527.
12. Tycho Brahe and Copernicus Take On the Known Universe
Astronomy according to Ptolemy was the popular theory until Copernicus turned it on its head. This lesson explores the theories of Copernicus and Brahe and how the two changed astronomical study.
13. Ivan the Terrible and the Making of Russia
Ivan the Terrible was a great but violent leader. Despite his intelligence, he was prone to violent outbursts. This lesson explores his life and the effects of his reign on Russia.
14. Life After the Reformation & Protestant Influence on Society
The Protestant Reformation was a huge movement that led to many Christians splitting from the Catholic Church. This lesson explores the after effects on families, education and social life.
15. Eastern Europe During the Reformation
This lesson will focus on the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation within Eastern Europe. As it highlights Hungary and Poland, it will explore the reasons why the Reformation did not last within these countries.
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Other chapters within the AP World History: Exam Prep course
- AP World History: Foundational Concepts
- AP World History: Major Belief Systems
- AP World History: Ancient Times
- AP World History: Ancient Middle East
- AP World History: Ancient China, Africa, India & America
- AP World History: Ancient Greece
- AP World History: Hellenism and Athenian Philosophy
- AP World History: The Rise of the Roman Republic
- AP World History: The Fall of the Roman Empire
- AP World History: The Dark Ages
- AP World History: Early Middle Ages
- AP World History: The Medieval Warm Period
- AP World History: The High Middle Ages
- AP World History: Asia, Africa & America (1000-1300 CE)
- AP World History: The Late Middle Ages
- AP World History: The Renaissance
- AP World History: The Age of Exploration
- AP World History: The Elizabethan Era
- AP World History: The Enlightenment
- AP World History: Political, Technological, and Intellectual Developments (1750-1914)
- AP World History: Colonialism
- AP World History: Imperialism
- AP World History: World War I
- AP World History: World War II
- AP World History: The Cold War and Other 20th Century World History
- AP World History: A Globalized World - 1980 & Beyond
- Portions of the AP World History Exam
- How to Write a Good Essay on Your AP Exam
- Developing and Writing Your AP Exam Essay
- AP World History Flashcards
- Additional AP World History Flashcards