About This Chapter
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Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in an applied social psychology unit of a standard social psychology course. Topics covered include:
- Altruism and prosocial behavior
- The bystander effect
- The deterrence theory of punishment
- Emotional and instrumental support during stress
- False confessions and recovered memories
- Seligman's theory of learned helplessness
1. Altruism and Prosocial Behavior: Definition & Predictors
Prosocial behavior is any action intended to help others. One motivation for prosocial behavior is altruism, or the desire to help others with no expectation of reward. In this lesson, we explore prosocial behavior and the elements that social psychologists have identified as predicting it.
2. Prosocial Behavior: How Gender and Culture Predict Helping
Social psychologists have found that both gender and culture help to predict people's prosocial behavior. In this lesson, we look at both of these factors and how they affect helping behaviors.
3. How Positive Moods and Negative State Relief Affect Prosocial Behavior
Your mood, good or bad, affects whether you are willing to engage in prosocial behavior. In this lesson, we look at how and why mood can determine whether people help others.
4. Defining the Bystander Effect: Kitty Genovese Murder & Research by Latane and Darley
In 1964, Kitty Genovese was murdered outside her New York apartment building. Some of her neighbors heard her screams but didn't call for help. This lesson explains the social phenomenon known as the bystander effect, which helps to explain why Genovese's neighbors didn't help her.
5. Social Exchange Theory vs. Empathy-Altruism
Social psychologists disagree on why people help others. Two theories on the subject are social exchange theory and the empathy-altruism hypothesis. In this lesson, we'll learn more about each of these theories.
6. Urban Overload, Pluralistic Ignorance & Diffusion of Responsibility: Definition and Effect on Helping
Studies have shown that people in large cities are less likely to help people out than people in small towns. In this lesson, we'll learn why this is by looking at the theories of urban overload, pluralistic ignorance, and diffusion of responsibility.
7. Social Psychology and its Applications in Environmental Efforts
Social psychologists have used information from their experiments to change people's behaviors in an effort to save the environment. In this lesson, we'll look at several psychological principles and how they can be applied to environmental efforts.
8. The Misinformation Effect and Eyewitness Accounts
Many crimes are prosecuted on the basis of eyewitness testimony. But how accurate are eyewitness accounts? The misinformation effect and source monitoring are two psychological principles that explain how sometimes witnesses can be mistaken.
9. Recovered Memories, False Confessions & the Misinformation Effect
The misinformation effect occurs when people are given misleading information that changes their memory of events. It can cause issues with two phenomena in the legal system: recovered memories and false confessions. In this lesson, we'll look at both in more detail.
10. Deterrence Theory of Punishment: Definition & Effect on Law Obedience
Deterrence theory says that people obey the law because they are scared of getting caught and being punished. In this lesson, we'll look more closely at deterrence theory and how it relates to drunk driving and the death penalty.
11. Perceived Behavioral Control: Definition and Relation to Stress
How much control over a situation we believe we have, also called our perceived control, helps reduce stress and has many other health benefits. In this lesson, we'll look at studies that demonstrate the powerful effect perceived control can have on our health.
12. How Seligman's Learned Helplessness Theory Applies to Human Depression and Stress
Learned helplessness is when people feel helpless to avoid negative situations because previous experience has shown them that they do not have control. In this lesson, we'll explore some of the causes and effects of learned helplessness.
13. Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control: Definition and Meaning
Self-efficacy is the belief that you can succeed in a specific area of your life, and locus of control is how much control you feel like you have over a situation. What do these two things have in common? In this lesson, we'll explore them both and how they relate to each other.
14. Research on Happiness: What Makes People Happy?
Research has found that there are several things that make people happy. Scientists have also discovered that most people don't do a good job of predicting what will make them happy. In this lesson, we'll look at what causes happiness, the relationship of money to happiness, and how accurate people are at making predictions about happiness.
15. Social Support and Stress: Emotional vs. Instrumental Support
Social support is an important tool for coping with stress. There are two main and contradicting hypotheses about the role of social support in stressful situations: the buffering hypothesis and the main effects hypothesis. In this lesson, we'll learn more about social support and its effects on stress.
16. Social Conflict Theory in Sociology: Definition & Contributors
Social conflict theory sees social life as a competition and focuses on the distribution of resources, power, and inequality. Let's take a look at a few of the key aspects of this perspective and test our knowledge with a quiz.
17. Matthew Effect: Definition & Examples
The name of a rich-poor dichotomy phenomenon is called the Matthew Effect and the following lesson will discuss its origin and various applications. Then following this, you can test your newfound knowledge with a quiz!
18. Adaptive Coping Strategies: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we will discuss adaptive coping strategies. Learn about adaptive coping strategies from examples. Then test your knowledge with a quiz.
19. Maladaptive Coping Strategies: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we'll learn about maladaptive coping strategies and look at the different ways people cope with stress. We'll also look at what happens when we use maladaptive rather than adaptive coping strategies.
20. Auguste Comte: Theories & Contributions to Sociology
How did a college dropout with a history of mental illness become one of the most influential thinkers of the 19th century? Read this lesson to find out about Auguste Comte and his ideas about sociology and positivism.
21. Five Techniques of Neutralization
In this lesson, we will discuss the five techniques of neutralization. Learn more about the five techniques from examples, and then test your knowledge with a quiz.
22. Instrumental Support: Definition & Examples
Did you know that every time you take a friend somewhere, you are providing instrumental support? Learn more about instrumental support from examples, and test your knowledge with a quiz.
23. Interpretivism in Sociology: Definition & Origin
For this lesson, we'll look at interpretivism and how it relates to the science of sociology. We'll cover the definitions of quantitative research, qualitative research, and interpretivism, and we'll see how the Chicago School influenced this methodology.
24. John Darley: Biography & Theories
Get to know the life and work of John Darley, noted American social psychologist. Learn about Darley's shocking research and what it tells us about human nature, particularly about how and when people are willing to help others.
25. John Macionis: Sociology Author, Overview
Learn about the author John Macionis, and his approach to teaching sociology to college students. Discover why his best-selling textbooks are so successful, then take a brief quiz to test your new knowledge.
26. Latent Functions in Sociology
This lesson discusses the difference between latent and manifest functions and dysfunctions. After starting with a simple example from your own living room, we'll consider how sociologists use the concept to better understand the larger structures of society.
27. Malthusian Theory of Population Growth: Definition & Overview
Known for his work on population growth, Thomas Robert Malthus argued that if left unchecked, a population will outgrow its resources, leading to a host of problems. In this lesson, we will define and discuss the Malthusian theory of population growth.
28. Means of Production in Sociology: Definition & Concept
This lesson describes the concept of means of production, taking a step back in time to the early development of industrialized society and seeing how the means of production continue in modern society. We explore how Karl Marx describes this topic and how critics respond.
29. Organized Crime: Definition & History
This lesson discusses how organized crime developed in the United States, and the definition for what constitutes a crime organization. You will learn what fuels the development of many groups, and how even an everyday job shares a few basic organizational elements in common with their structure.
30. Pluralistic Ignorance: Definition & Examples
Pluralistic ignorance refers to the social phenomenon in which individuals guess wrongly about a group's beliefs and values. Learn more about pluralistic ignorance through examples and then test your knowledge with a quiz in this lesson.
31. Social Phenomena: Definition & Examples
Social phenomena are an incredibly important aspect of everyone's lives. In this lesson, you'll explore a number of examples of social phenomena that should provide insight into how they influence the evolution of societies.
32. Social Status: Definition, Types & Examples
In this lesson, we'll be looking at social status. Learn more about the different types of social statuses, including achieved, ascribed, and master status, and test your knowledge with a quiz.
33. Antisocial Behavior: Definition & Examples
This lesson goes over antisocial behavior, or behavior that is reckless and threatening, usually associated with the mental illness known as antisocial personality disorder. We'll cover some examples of the behaviors consistent with this diagnosis.
34. What is Social Action Theory?
In this lesson, we will examine a few different sociological theoretical perspectives on social action theory and describe how they interrelate with each other. A brief quiz follows the lesson.
35. Bruno Latour's Reassembling the Social Summary
In this lesson, we'll go over the major components of the French Philosopher, Bruno Latour's book 'Reassembling the Social'. We'll talk about how he understands the interaction between human and non-human actors.
36. Buffering Hypothesis: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn the meaning of the buffering hypothesis, examine reasons that it holds true, and consider examples to further your understanding of this concept. A brief quiz to test your new knowledge follows the lesson.
37. What Does Taboo Mean? - Definition & Examples
Although they are less common today than they once were, taboos have long been used to maintain social order. Through this lesson, you will learn how to define the term and explore some examples of past and present taboos.
38. Compassion vs Empathy
Have you tried to put yourself in someone else's shoes? If so, you were practicing empathy. In this lesson, we will learn about empathy and how it differs from compassion.
39. Empathy in Counseling: Definition & Examples
Empathy is a powerful skill that connects people through the ability to relate to another's personal perspective and emotions. In this lesson learn how empathy can be applied while providing counseling in a health care setting.
40. Empathy in Customer Service
This lesson defines empathy and describes the use of empathy in customer service. It then discusses why empathy is an important component of customer service.
41. Empathy & Leadership
Empathy, or the ability to understand what other people are feeling, has a powerful impact on your ability to lead. In this lesson, we will explore the ways that your empathy can impact your leadership skills.
42. Lack of Empathy: Disorders, Signs & Causes
Empathy is our connection to other people. In this lesson, we'll discuss the psychological disorders related to a lack of empathy, including how they appear and what causes them.
43. Empathy in the Workplace
Empathy is an important characteristic in relating to others. This lesson discusses empathy in the workplace and the importance of using empathy at work.
44. Empathy vs Apathy
Did you know that empathy is considered a healthy behavior, while apathy can be a sign of something wrong? In this lesson, we will learn about empathy, apathy, and how the two are different.
45. Empathy vs Sympathy
In this lesson, we'll talk about the difference between two words that are often confused in our everyday language: sympathy and empathy. We'll talk about how the psychologist Carl Rogers distinguished empathy from sympathy in psychotherapy.
46. Examples of Empathy Statements in Customer Service
This lesson will review a critical component of customer service. We'll discuss examples of how to demonstrate to customers active and empathetic listening to improve engagement and overall communication.
47. Empathy Maps for Customers
Empathy maps are a new tool that companies can use to try to get inside the heads of their customers. This lesson will explain what an empathy map is, the sections of the empathy map, how to have an empathy session, and why companies use empathy maps.
48. Types of Empathy
This lesson looks at studies conducted on the types of empathy. The three types of empathy - cognitive, emotional and compassionate - are discussed as to their positive and negative traits (if they have any) and a thorough definition of empathy is given based on these three types of empathy.
49. Compensatory Strategies: Definition & Examples
Did you know that compensatory strategies can be used to help cover up deficits in memory? In this lesson, we will learn about compensatory strategies by using examples.
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Other chapters within the Social Psychology: Help and Review course
- Introduction to Social Psychology: Help and Review
- Research Methods and Ethics: Help and Review
- Social Cognition & Perception: Help and Review
- The Self in a Social Context: Help and Review
- Attitudes and Persuasion: Help and Review
- Group Decisions: Help and Review
- Attraction & Close Relationships: Help and Review
- Stereotypes, Prejudice, & Discrimination: Help and Review