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Topics from your homework you'll be able to complete:
- Altruism and prosocial behavior
- Gender and cultural influences on prosocial behavior
- Positive mood and negative state relief theory
- The bystander effect
- Social exchange theory and empathy-altruism comparisons
- Urban overload, pluralistic ignorance and diffusion of responsibility
- The application of social psychology to environmental efforts
- Eyewitness accounts and the misinformation effect
- Recovered memories and false confessions
- Deterrence theory of punishment
- Perceived behavioral control
- Seligman's learned helplessness theory
- Self-efficacy and locus of control
- Research on happiness
- Emotional vs. instrumental social support and stress
1. Altruism and Prosocial Behavior: Definition & Predictors
Prosocial behavior is any behavior that is meant to help other people. Dive deeper into motivations for prosocial behavior including altruism (helping others without expecting something in return), kin selection (people helping others who are related to them, even at a cost), reciprocity norm (if you give me something, I'll give you something in return), empathy-altruism hypothesis (people are more likely to help others if they feel empathy for them), and the altruistic personality type.
2. Prosocial Behavior: How Gender and Culture Predict Helping
Prosocial behavior occurs when we help others, and social psychologists argue that prosocial behaviors can be predicted by both gender and culture. Learn about prosocial behavior and explore how gender and culture can predict helping behaviors. Understand the difference between in-group helping and out-group helping, and compare helping in collectivist cultures to helping in individualistic cultures.
3. How Positive Moods and Negative State Relief Affect Prosocial Behavior
Positive moods and negative state relief affect prosocial behavior as people are either likely to help in order to keep their good mood, or people in a bad mood might help others to improve their mood. Explore why people help others and how good and bad moods affect helping.
4. Defining the Bystander Effect: Kitty Genovese Murder & Research by Latane and Darley
The bystander effect is the social psychology term for when people do not help in an emergency situation if there are other witnesses present. Discover a famous example of the bystander effect (the murder of Kitty Genovese in 1964) which prompted researchers Bibb Latane and John Darley to study the diffusion of responsibility, or why people do not help in emergencies when others are around.
5. Social Exchange Theory vs. Empathy-Altruism
Social psychologists disagree on the causes of prosocial behavior, or why people help each other. Explore social exchange theory and compare it to the empathy-altruism hypothesis to learn about two perspectives on prosocial behavior. Understand the costs and benefits of helping others, and recognize that some social psychologists think social exchange theory also explains the empathy-altruism hypothesis.
6. Urban Overload, Pluralistic Ignorance & Diffusion of Responsibility: Definition and Effect on Helping
Studies have shown that people in large cities are less likely to help others than people in small towns. Discover three reasons that help explain this phenomenon (urban overload, pluralistic ignorance, and diffusion of responsibility), definitions of each, and examples.
7. Social Psychology and its Applications in Environmental Efforts
Experts have found use for applied social psychology in addressing environmental issues. Explore social psychology and its applications in environmental efforts, from resolving social dilemmas, to changing social norms, to inducing hypocrisy.
8. The Misinformation Effect and Eyewitness Accounts
The misinformation effect can make eyewitness accounts unreliable. Explore this effect, the accuracy of eyewitnesses, Loftus' experiment with the misinformation effect, and source monitoring.
9. Recovered Memories, False Confessions & the Misinformation Effect
The misinformation effect is the phenomenon where misleading information changes or otherwise affects people's memories. Explore this effect, recovered memories, and false confessions.
10. Deterrence Theory of Punishment: Definition & Effect on Law Obedience
The deterrence theory of punishment argues that people obey the law because they fear the punishment if they get caught breaking the law. Explore deterrence theory's definition and effect on law obedience. Understand the criticisms of deterrence theory, and consider the theory as it applies to drunk driving as well as the death penalty.
11. Perceived Behavioral Control: Definition and Relation to Stress
Perceived control describes the amount of control people believe they have over a situation. This phenomenon has stress-reduction and mental health benefits. Explore perceived control's definition and its relation to stress and health.
12. Learned Helplessness: Seligman's Theory and Depression
Learned helplessness, first observed by Martin Seligman when he was doing classical conditioning experiments on dogs, occurs when people or animals feel helpless to avoid negative situations. Explore more about the types of attributions that cause learned helplessness (internal, stable, global), example studies done on humans, and effects of learned helplessness (depression, high stress, inability to learn).
13. Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control: Definition and Meaning
Self-efficacy is the belief that you can succeed in a specific area of your life, and locus of control is how much control you feel you have over a situation. Explore these definitions and meanings, and the benefits of self-efficacy.
14. Research on Happiness: What Makes People Happy?
According to social psychologists, there are three main things that make people happy: close relationships, a job or past-time that they love, and helping others. Learn more about happiness and its relationship to materialism, affective forecasting (guessing how you'll feel under specific future circumstances), impact bias, and projection bias.
15. Social Support and Stress: Emotional vs. Instrumental Support
Social support is the belief that others will be perceptive to a person's needs and try to help them through either emotional or instrumental support. Explore these types of support and their benefits and learn about the buffering hypothesis and main effects hypothesis.
16. Dan Gilbert on Happiness: Overview
Dan Gilbert, Ph.D., is a psychologist, professor, and best-selling author who asserts that most people are unaware of their own path to happiness. Explore the differences between what Gilbert describes as synthetic and natural happiness, and the role of the psychological immune system.
17. False Memories in Psychology: Formation & Definition
Memory can be moldable and malleable, which can lead to the recall of false memories or events that never occurred. Learn the definition of false memories in psychology, discover how people can form false memories, explore Elizabeth Loftus' experiments on implanting false memories, and see how more complex false memories are implanted.
18. Psychology of False Confessions: Causes, Consequences & Implications
What would you do if you were wrongfully accused of a crime? In this lesson, we will explore why some people give false confessions and the consequences it has on their lives.
19. Rape Victims: Facts, Aftermath & Psychological Effects
Rape is a horrible crime against a human being. Rape affects both the victims of the crime and their families and friends. Here, we discuss statistics, the definition of rape, and the aftermath.
20. Reciprocal Interaction: Definition & Model
Similar behavior being shared simultaneously or back-and-forth is an instance of reciprocal interaction. Learn the definition and significance of this social-psychological model, and examine its impact in a real-world example of reciprocal interaction.
21. Recovered Memory: Syndrome, Therapy & Controversy
Recovered memory is a so-called 'repressed memory' retrieved by individuals through therapy. Recovered Memory Syndrome, however, suggests that a false memory of events may be recalled. Explore the connection between recovering a memory and false memory syndrome.
22. Relativist Fallacy: Definition & Example
In this lesson, we will discuss the relativist fallacy. Learn more about the relativist fallacy and the relationship between that fallacy and objectivity. Then test your knowledge with a quiz.
23. Role Set in Sociology: Definition & Analysis
Role set in sociology is a term used to describe the set of roles and relationships that individuals possess as a result of social status as defined by American sociologist Robert K. Merton in 1957. Learn about Merton's analysis and the wider definition of the role set concept in sociology.
24. Social Expectations: Definition & Theory
There are many things that influence human behavior. Understand the theory and definition of social expectations, explore an overview of social influences and institutions, the stages of moral development, symbolic interactionism, the expectations states theory, and the stages of socialization.
25. Social Learning Theory: Definition & Examples
Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory describes how individuals learn concepts and behavior through observation. Explore this theory through the famous Bobo Doll experiment, learning the four processes: attention, retention, reproduction, motivation.
26. Social Systems: Definition & Theory
Social systems are ultimately contributed to a larger institution, used to identify relationships that connect both people and organizations. Learn about Talcott Parsons, his AGIL Paradigm theory which identifies the four basic conditions societies need to survive, and general systems theory.
27. Status Set in Sociology: Definition & Example
In sociology, a status set is used to describe all of a person's various statuses in a particular context. Learn more about status and role, review the definition of a sociological status set, and take a closer look at how status sets work in an example.
28. What Is Happiness? - Definition & Explanation
Happiness is a positive emotion and state of contentedness. Explore the definition of happiness, see an explanation of the recipe for happiness, the PERMA model, and understand rating happiness.
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Other chapters within the Social Psychology: Homework Help Resource course
- Introduction to Social Psychology: Homework Help
- Research Methods and Ethics: Homework Help
- Social Cognition & Perception: Homework Help
- The Self in a Social Context: Homework Help
- Attitudes and Persuasion: Homework Help
- Group Decisions: Homework Help
- Attraction & Close Relationships: Homework Help
- Stereotypes, Prejudice, & Discrimination: Homework Help
- Sociological, Anthropological & Psychological Concepts