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- Define altruism and prosocial behavior.
- Explain how gender and culture affect prosocial behavior.
- Learn how prosocial behavior is affected by positive moods and negative state relief.
- Define the bystander effect.
- Compare and contrast social exchange theory and the empathy-altruism hypothesis.
- Define pluralistic ignorance, diffusion of responsibility and urban overload.
- Discuss the application of social psychology to environmental efforts.
- Describe the misinformation effect.
- Take a look at the phenomena of false confessions and recovered memories.
- Examine the deterrence theory of punishment.
- Relate perceived behavioral control to stress.
- Learn how Seligman's learned helplessness theory applies to human depression and stress.
- Describe the relationship between self-efficacy and locus of control.
- Explain what makes people happy.
- Understand how emotional and instrumental support help alleviate stress.
1. Altruism and Prosocial Behavior: Definition & Predictors
Prosocial behavior is any action intended to help others. One motivation for prosocial behavior is altruism, or the desire to help others with no expectation of reward. In this lesson, we explore prosocial behavior and the elements that social psychologists have identified as predicting it.
2. Prosocial Behavior: How Gender and Culture Predict Helping
Social psychologists have found that both gender and culture help to predict people's prosocial behavior. In this lesson, we look at both of these factors and how they affect helping behaviors.
3. How Positive Moods and Negative State Relief Affect Prosocial Behavior
Your mood, good or bad, affects whether you are willing to engage in prosocial behavior. In this lesson, we look at how and why mood can determine whether people help others.
4. Defining the Bystander Effect: Kitty Genovese Murder & Research by Latane and Darley
In 1964, Kitty Genovese was murdered outside her New York apartment building. Some of her neighbors heard her screams but didn't call for help. This lesson explains the social phenomenon known as the bystander effect, which helps to explain why Genovese's neighbors didn't help her.
5. Social Exchange Theory vs. Empathy-Altruism
Social psychologists disagree on why people help others. Two theories on the subject are social exchange theory and the empathy-altruism hypothesis. In this lesson, we'll learn more about each of these theories.
6. Urban Overload, Pluralistic Ignorance & Diffusion of Responsibility: Definition and Effect on Helping
Studies have shown that people in large cities are less likely to help people out than people in small towns. In this lesson, we'll learn why this is by looking at the theories of urban overload, pluralistic ignorance, and diffusion of responsibility.
7. Social Psychology and its Applications in Environmental Efforts
Social psychologists have used information from their experiments to change people's behaviors in an effort to save the environment. In this lesson, we'll look at several psychological principles and how they can be applied to environmental efforts.
8. The Misinformation Effect and Eyewitness Accounts
Many crimes are prosecuted on the basis of eyewitness testimony. But how accurate are eyewitness accounts? The misinformation effect and source monitoring are two psychological principles that explain how sometimes witnesses can be mistaken.
9. Recovered Memories, False Confessions & the Misinformation Effect
The misinformation effect occurs when people are given misleading information that changes their memory of events. It can cause issues with two phenomena in the legal system: recovered memories and false confessions. In this lesson, we'll look at both in more detail.
10. Deterrence Theory of Punishment: Definition & Effect on Law Obedience
Deterrence theory says that people obey the law because they are scared of getting caught and being punished. In this lesson, we'll look more closely at deterrence theory and how it relates to drunk driving and the death penalty.
11. Perceived Behavioral Control: Definition and Relation to Stress
How much control over a situation we believe we have, also called our perceived control, helps reduce stress and has many other health benefits. In this lesson, we'll look at studies that demonstrate the powerful effect perceived control can have on our health.
12. How Seligman's Learned Helplessness Theory Applies to Human Depression and Stress
Learned helplessness is when people feel helpless to avoid negative situations because previous experience has shown them that they do not have control. In this lesson, we'll explore some of the causes and effects of learned helplessness.
13. Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control: Definition and Meaning
Self-efficacy is the belief that you can succeed in a specific area of your life, and locus of control is how much control you feel like you have over a situation. What do these two things have in common? In this lesson, we'll explore them both and how they relate to each other.
14. Research on Happiness: What Makes People Happy?
Research has found that there are several things that make people happy. Scientists have also discovered that most people don't do a good job of predicting what will make them happy. In this lesson, we'll look at what causes happiness, the relationship of money to happiness, and how accurate people are at making predictions about happiness.
15. Social Support and Stress: Emotional vs. Instrumental Support
Social support is an important tool for coping with stress. There are two main and contradicting hypotheses about the role of social support in stressful situations: the buffering hypothesis and the main effects hypothesis. In this lesson, we'll learn more about social support and its effects on stress.
16. Achieved Status: Definition & Examples
Did you know that 'lawyer' and 'doctor' are both examples of achieved status? Learn more about achieved status from examples, and test your knowledge with a quiz.
17. Ascribed Status: Definition & Examples
Did you know that race and gender are both examples of ascribed status? Learn more about ascribed status from examples and test your knowledge with a quiz.
18. Define Verstehen in Sociology
This lesson looks at the concept of verstehen and how sociologists used this idea to advance their field. You'll imagine you are a sociologist headed to England to study sports fans and what it would be like to experience verstehen in action.
19. Ferdinand Tonnies Theory: Overview & Explanation
Ferdinand Tonnies contributed significantly to the field of sociology. In this lesson, you will learn about Tonnies' most influential theory and gain insight into how it has helped to provide a better understanding of social groupings.
20. Glass Escalator in Sociology: Definition & Effects
This lesson discusses the concept of the glass escalator in sociology and its effects on men and women in the professional workplace. A short quiz is provided after the lesson to assess your knowledge of the topic.
21. Horizontal Mobility: Definition & Overview
Horizontal mobility refers to switching from one position to another, but not changing your social status. Learn about horizontal mobility from examples, how it differs from vertical mobility, and more.
22. Negative Effects of Technology on Social Skills
As technology plays an increasing role in our students' lives, we as educators start to wonder what impact it has on their social skills. This lesson answers this question and gives some suggestions on balancing technology usage in the classroom.
23. Misinformation Effect in Psychology: Examples & Overview
Have you ever reminisced about an experience with someone and you both seem to have different recollections of the same event? This is a puzzling phenomenon, and the misinformation effect is one of the components that contribute to the sometimes startling inaccuracy of long-term memory.
24. Self-Efficacy: Definition & Theory
Learn what self-efficacy is and how it affects your motivation to accomplish specific tasks. Learn about Albert Bandura's contribution to the concept of self-efficacy and how it has shaped contemporary psychology.
25. Social Boundaries: Definition and Examples
Social boundaries are found in just about every society and direct the way people function on a daily basis. In this segment, you will learn what social boundaries are, and why for instance, we're required to wear clothing when in public establishments.
26. Urban Overload: Hypothesis & Overview
The urban overload hypothesis was first described by social psychologists Stanley Milgram to explain why people in cities help less than people in small towns. Learn about overload, how people in cities try to compensate for overload, and more.
27. What Is Empathy? - Definition & Examples
Are you able to put yourself in other people's shoes and see things from their point of view? If so, you have empathy. Learn more about empathy, how it differs from sympathy, and how it is used in the field of psychology.
28. What Is Role Conflict? - Definition, Types & Examples
Does the amount of time you spend at work or school prevent you from spending time with your family? In this lesson, we will look at how the different roles we play in life sometimes contradict one another.
29. Angela Lee Duckworth & the Study of Grit
What exactly is 'grit'? Angela Lee Duckworth is a researcher that has been trying to define, describe and measure grit, what outcomes grit positively affects, and if it is possible to make children grittier. Learn more about grit in this lesson.
30. Ideal Type in Sociology
Learn what an ideal type is. This lesson will discuss how sociologists use the term ideal type, why they use it as a method of analysis, and the three ways they apply it.
31. Adler's Theory of Masculine Protest
Austrian psychiatrist Alfred Adler coined the term masculine protest to explain how women attempt to escape feminine roles. In this lesson, we will take a deeper look into how men and women express masculine protests.
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Other chapters within the Social Psychology: Tutoring Solution course
- Introduction to Social Psychology: Tutoring Solution
- Research Methods and Ethics: Tutoring Solution
- Social Cognition & Perception: Tutoring Solution
- The Self in a Social Context: Tutoring Solution
- Attitudes and Persuasion: Tutoring Solution
- Group Decisions: Tutoring Solution
- Attraction & Close Relationships: Tutoring Solution
- Stereotypes, Prejudice, & Discrimination: Tutoring Solution