About This Chapter
Applied Social Psychology - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Applying the aspects, theories and principles of social psychology is called applied psychology. This branch of social psychology is the focus of this chapter. These lessons will touch upon research studies in this field and the significant findings of these studies. You'll get to take a deeper look into topics that include altruism, prosocial behavior and the bystander effect. As you explore these topics, you will learn about the impact of emotions, the effect of gender and urban overload. Some of the additional things you can expect our lessons to touch upon include:
- How kin selection is a predictor of prosocial behavior
- The negative state relief theory
- Research by Latane Darley
- The social exchange theory
- The misinformation effect
- The definition of self-efficacy
|Altruism and Prosocial Behavior: Definition & Predictors||Explore the concepts of altruism vs. prosocial behavior with a look at predictors of prosocial behavior, including kin selection, the reciprocity norm, empathy-altruism and altruistic personality.|
|Prosocial Behavior: How Gender and Culture Predict Helping||Examine how gender and cultural differences predict varying levels of prosocial behavior.|
|How Positive Moods and Negative State Relief Affect Prosocial Behavior||Discover the effects of mood on helping, including positive moods and negative state relief theory.|
|Defining the Bystander Effect: Kitty Genovese Murder & Research by Latane Darley||Analyze the Kitty Genovese murder and the bystander effect.|
|Social Exchange Theory vs. Empathy-Altruism||Compare the social exchange theory with Batson's empathy-altruism hypothesis.|
|Urban Overload, Pluralistic Ignorance & Diffusion of Responsibility: Definition and Effect on Helping||Take a look at urban overload, pluralistic ignorance and diffusion of responsibility.|
|Social Psychology and Its Applications in Environmental Efforts||Examine how social psychology phenomena can be applied to environmental efforts.|
|The Misinformation Effect and Eyewitness Accounts||Explore Loftus' research on the misinformation effect and how this relates to the lack of reliability in eyewitnesses.|
|Recovered Memories, False Confessions & the Misinformation Effect||Discover the phenomena of recovered memories and false confessions, how they happen and whether they are reliable.|
|Deterrence Theory of Punishment: Definition & Effect on Law Obedience||Study how the deterrence theory predicts why people obey the law.|
|Perceived Behavioral Control: Definition and Relation to Stress||Discuss research on the role of perceived control in stressful situations.|
1. Altruism and Prosocial Behavior: Definition & Predictors
Prosocial behavior is any action intended to help others. One motivation for prosocial behavior is altruism, or the desire to help others with no expectation of reward. In this lesson, we explore prosocial behavior and the elements that social psychologists have identified as predicting it.
2. Prosocial Behavior: How Gender and Culture Predict Helping
Social psychologists have found that both gender and culture help to predict people's prosocial behavior. In this lesson, we look at both of these factors and how they affect helping behaviors.
3. How Positive Moods and Negative State Relief Affect Prosocial Behavior
Your mood, good or bad, affects whether you are willing to engage in prosocial behavior. In this lesson, we look at how and why mood can determine whether people help others.
4. Defining the Bystander Effect: Kitty Genovese Murder & Research by Latane and Darley
In 1964, Kitty Genovese was murdered outside her New York apartment building. Some of her neighbors heard her screams but didn't call for help. This lesson explains the social phenomenon known as the bystander effect, which helps to explain why Genovese's neighbors didn't help her.
5. Social Exchange Theory vs. Empathy-Altruism
Social psychologists disagree on why people help others. Two theories on the subject are social exchange theory and the empathy-altruism hypothesis. In this lesson, we'll learn more about each of these theories.
6. Urban Overload, Pluralistic Ignorance & Diffusion of Responsibility: Definition and Effect on Helping
Studies have shown that people in large cities are less likely to help people out than people in small towns. In this lesson, we'll learn why this is by looking at the theories of urban overload, pluralistic ignorance, and diffusion of responsibility.
7. Social Psychology and its Applications in Environmental Efforts
Social psychologists have used information from their experiments to change people's behaviors in an effort to save the environment. In this lesson, we'll look at several psychological principles and how they can be applied to environmental efforts.
8. The Misinformation Effect and Eyewitness Accounts
Many crimes are prosecuted on the basis of eyewitness testimony. But how accurate are eyewitness accounts? The misinformation effect and source monitoring are two psychological principles that explain how sometimes witnesses can be mistaken.
9. Recovered Memories, False Confessions & the Misinformation Effect
The misinformation effect occurs when people are given misleading information that changes their memory of events. It can cause issues with two phenomena in the legal system: recovered memories and false confessions. In this lesson, we'll look at both in more detail.
10. Deterrence Theory of Punishment: Definition & Effect on Law Obedience
Deterrence theory says that people obey the law because they are scared of getting caught and being punished. In this lesson, we'll look more closely at deterrence theory and how it relates to drunk driving and the death penalty.
11. Perceived Behavioral Control: Definition and Relation to Stress
How much control over a situation we believe we have, also called our perceived control, helps reduce stress and has many other health benefits. In this lesson, we'll look at studies that demonstrate the powerful effect perceived control can have on our health.
12. How Seligman's Learned Helplessness Theory Applies to Human Depression and Stress
Learned helplessness is when people feel helpless to avoid negative situations because previous experience has shown them that they do not have control. In this lesson, we'll explore some of the causes and effects of learned helplessness.
13. Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control: Definition and Meaning
Self-efficacy is the belief that you can succeed in a specific area of your life, and locus of control is how much control you feel like you have over a situation. What do these two things have in common? In this lesson, we'll explore them both and how they relate to each other.
14. Research on Happiness: What Makes People Happy?
Research has found that there are several things that make people happy. Scientists have also discovered that most people don't do a good job of predicting what will make them happy. In this lesson, we'll look at what causes happiness, the relationship of money to happiness, and how accurate people are at making predictions about happiness.
15. Social Support and Stress: Emotional vs. Instrumental Support
Social support is an important tool for coping with stress. There are two main and contradicting hypotheses about the role of social support in stressful situations: the buffering hypothesis and the main effects hypothesis. In this lesson, we'll learn more about social support and its effects on stress.
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