About This Chapter
Standard: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.8)
About This Chapter
The content in this chapter provides lessons on essential skills for developing discerning citizens and students with strong research skills. Here they will learn to explore the strengths and weaknesses of others' written arguments and to develop their own understanding of an argument's usefulness and/or validity. These videos help students focus on:
- Identifying an argument's component parts
- Analyzing effectiveness, reliability, validity, and credibility in an argument
- Comparing/contrasting opposing arguments
- Understanding and avoiding logical fallacies
- Evaluating reasoning of a text
After viewing these videos and completing the related assessments, your students will show greater discernment when reading informational copy. They will demonstrate awareness of faulty logic and reasoning as they compare and choose sources while conducting independent research. They should be able to better avoid poor logic in their own writings.
How to Use These Lessons in Your Classroom
This is a large chapter with lots of activity potential; here are a few ideas to get you started.
Court of Classroom Opinion
First watch the videos on the parts of an argument and analyzing two opposing arguments. Print the transcript of a recent debate in the news, printing separate sheets for each side of the argument. Select students to re-enact the debate in the classroom with the remaining students taking notes. After the reenactment discuss the debate by parts: claim, counterclaim, reasoning, and evidence.
Supreme Court Cases
Watch the videos on logical fallacies as a class. As homework, have students research a recent Supreme Court case, reviewing the oral arguments of defenders on both sides of the issue. Students will annotate arguments they consider to contain fallacies and describe why they are so. Discuss the results as a class or in small groups.
After watching the videos on reasoning, show some clips of local or national politicians describing their stance on something important to them. Discuss as a class which arguments use causal or analogical reasoning, and whether the connection between cause and effect follow logically or if they may be merely coincidental relationships.
1. Parts of An Argument: Claims, Counterclaims, Reasons, and Evidence
To effectively write an argument, you need to know the four basic parts. In this lesson, you will learn the definitions of the four basic parts and why you need them in an argument.
2. How to Analyze an Argument's Effectiveness & Validity
In this lesson, we will learn how to analyze an argument. We will pay close attention to the parts of an argument and the questions we must ask about each of those parts in order to determine the argument's effectiveness and validity.
3. Assessing the Reliability and Validity of Sources
In the business world, any research material must have support that can provide validity and reliability. The support must be credible and have documentation to show that it is well-researched, professional, peer-reviewed and recent.
4. How to Evaluate Reasoning
Evaluating reasoning in an essay or article is an important step in critical analysis. Being able to judge if something is reasonable whether or not you agree with the argument will be our learning focus for this video.
5. How to Analyze Two Texts with Opposing Arguments
In this lesson, we'll discuss how to analyze two texts that present opposing arguments. We'll examine arguments based on varying evidence and on varying assumptions.
6. What are Logical Fallacies? - Define, Identify and Avoid Them
Logical fallacies are flaws in reasoning that can throw your argument off track and confuse your reader. This video explains how to identify a few common logical fallacies and how to steer clear of them.
7. Logical Fallacies: Appeals to Ignorance, Emotion or Popularity
Watch this video lesson to see examples of the logical fallacies of appeals to ignorance, emotion, and popularity. You will also see how to identify them.
8. Logical Fallacies: Hasty Generalization, Circular Reasoning, False Cause & Limited Choice
Watch this video lesson to see how you can identify cases where logic is not sound. Learn the characteristic traits of hasty generalization, circular reasoning, false cause, and limited choice.
9. Either/Or Fallacy: Examples & Overview
This lesson examines the either/or logical fallacy, whereby a party in an argument characterizes a complex problem as having only two possible solutions.
10. Logical Appeal: Definition & Examples
Learn about logical appeals and how they're used to persuade. Find out how to use logical appeals in your writing and how fallacies can undermine your logic.
11. Causal and Analogical Reasoning: Impact on Public Speaking
Causal and analogical reasoning are often confused and sometimes difficult to understand. In this lesson, you will learn the differences between the two types of reasoning and the way each of them is used in public speaking.
12. How to Evaluate the Reasoning in a Statement
Understanding the reasoning and argumentation of a statement is key to evaluating its truth. This lesson will explain the steps required to analyze written statements, as well as how to identify common logical fallacies that make statements false.
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Other chapters within the Common Core ELA - Informational Text Grades 9-10: Standards course
- Informational Text for Common Core ELA - Informational Text 9-10
- Citing Textual Evidence: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.1
- Central Idea & Summarizing: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.2
- Nonfiction Analysis: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.3
- Word Choice & Tone: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.4
- Figurative & Technical Language: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.4
- Idea Development: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.5
- Author's Purpose & Point of View: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.6
- Accounts in Different Mediums: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.7
- Analyzing Seminal U.S. Documents: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.9