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- List various forms of assessment.
- Differentiate between formative and summative evaluations.
- Understand the qualities that make a good assessment.
- Learn how to determine the validity and reliability of an assessment.
- Compare and contrast product and performance assessments.
- Understand the statistics involved in summarizing assessment results.
- Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of norm- and criterion-referenced scoring.
- Describe the pros and cons of using standardized tests in education.
- Explain the problems associated with high-stakes testing.
- Become familiar with different types of testing biases.
- Learn how assessments in the classroom can be misused.
- Describe the use of ecological assessments in special education.
1. Forms of Assessment: Informal, Formal, Paper-Pencil & Performance Assessments
Educators often need to assess students' learning and achievement. There are multiple forms of assessments that educators use to not only gain knowledge about a student's level of understanding but also to guide the direction of future lessons and course curriculum. This lesson will differentiate between formal and informal assessments and paper-pencil versus performance-based assessments used in educational settings.
2. Standardized Assessments & Formative vs. Summative Evaluations
If you have ever attended a public school or college you have been subjected to a form of standardized assessment. These assessments serve multiple purposes and provide valuable information regarding one's abilities, understanding and potential. This lesson will introduce you to the types of standardized assessments commonly used in schools and discuss two other types of assessments: formative and summative.
3. Qualities of Good Assessments: Standardization, Practicality, Reliability & Validity
Have you ever been in the middle of an assessment and thought, 'This question is unfair!' or 'This exam covers material I have never seen before!' If so, the assessment probably did not possess the qualities that make an assessment effective. This lesson will introduce you to the qualities of good assessments: reliability, standardization, validity, and practicality.
4. Validity in Assessments: Content, Construct & Predictive Validity
Ensuring that an assessment measures what it is intended to measure is a critical component in education. Assessment results are used to predict future achievement and current knowledge. This lesson will define the term validity and differentiate between content, construct, and predictive validity.
5. The Reliability Coefficient and the Reliability of Assessments
How are test scores affected by day-to-day changes of a student? Do different people rate students' performances the same? These questions are addressed through the understanding of reliability. This lesson will define reliability, explain how reliability is measured, and explore methods to enhance reliability of assessments in the classroom.
6. Performance Assessments: Product vs. Process
Playing a musical instrument, creating a spreadsheet and performing in a play are all activities that many of us engage in on a regular basis. These activities are also examples of ways teachers assess a student's mastery of a subject in educational settings. This lesson will define performance-based assessments and discuss the various uses of performance assessments in the classroom.
7. Summarizing Assessment Results: Understanding Basic Statistics of Score Distribution
Summarizing test results is a critical component of the assessment process. In order for results to be used effectively, they must be summarized in a way that allows educators to compare the achievement of one student to others. This lesson will describe the first step in summarizing results: understanding the basic statistics of score distribution.
8. Summarizing Assessment Results: Comparing Test Scores to a Larger Population
Assessment results can yield valuable information about the individual test-taker and the larger population of test-takers. This lesson will describe how to compare test scores to a larger population by explaining standard score, stanines, z-score, percentile rank and cumulative percentage.
9. Using Standard Deviation and Bell Curves for Assessment
When a teacher gives an exam in class, how does she decide if the test scores were good or bad? This lesson focuses on classroom assessment, specifically how to analyze the variability of scores within a given group of students. We'll discuss both standard deviation and bell curves.
10. Norm- vs. Criterion-Referenced Scoring: Advantages & Disadvantages
Assessment results allow educators to make important decisions about students' knowledge, abilities and future educational potential. There are multiple ways to summarize and interpret assessment results. This lesson will discuss ways to summarize norm-referenced assessments and criterion-referenced assessments.
11. Using Mean, Median, and Mode for Assessment
How does a teacher decide what is a good exam score and what is a bad one? This lesson focuses on classroom assessment, but instead of different types of assessment (such as essay versus true/false questions), we'll discuss statistical methods for summarizing scores on any form of testing. Specifically, this lesson covers the statistical tools known as the mean, median and mode.
12. Standardized Tests in Education: Advantages and Disadvantages
Standardized tests are used frequently in educational settings. This lesson will help you understand the advantages and disadvantages of these tests and also explore factors that impact standardized test performance.
13. High-Stakes Testing: Accountability and Problems
Do high test scores equal high achievement? Many politicians and educational reformers think the answer is yes. High-stakes standardized testing has become commonplace in American schools. This lesson will define high-stakes testing and accountability and present problems associated with these types of tests.
14. Testing Bias, Cultural Bias & Language Differences in Assessments
Assessments are used to gain useful information about test-takers' knowledge, skills and progress. Sometimes, however, the results of these assessments are incorrect due to biases. This lesson will differentiate and discuss types of testing bias and differences among test-takers that may lead to testing bias.
15. Use and Misuse of Assessments in the Classroom
Assessments are excellent tools in the classroom. Used properly, they provide invaluable information about student knowledge and progress. However, if misused, assessments can misrepresent the actual knowledge and learning taking place in the classroom. This lesson will discuss the use and misuse of standardized assessments.
16. Special Education and Ecological Assessments
An ecological assessment is one type of assessment that is used to help students that have special needs. In this lesson, we discuss ecological assessments, what they entail, and how they are used.
17. Analytical Intelligence: Definition & Explanation
Analytical intelligence, also called componential intelligence, includes your ability to successfully complete academic tasks, solve analogies, and process information. Learn more about Robert Sternberg's theory of analytical intelligence and test your knowledge with a quiz.
18. Reliability in Psychology: Definition & Concept
In this lesson, you will learn how the concept of reliability is applied to psychological assessment measures. Following this lesson, you will have the opportunity to test your knowledge with a short quiz.
19. Special Education: Definition, Types & Philosophy
Learn what special education is and the different types. Find out about the philosophy behind special education. Read the lesson and then take a brief quiz to test your knowledge.
20. What Are Intellectual Disabilities? - Definition, Characteristics & Types
In this lesson, you will learn to define intellectual disability as well as recognize factors associated with its cause. Following your completion of this lesson, you will have the opportunity to test your knowledge with a short quiz.
21. How to Help Students with Test Anxiety
Many students have test anxiety, stressing so much over tests and quizzes that they can't be at their best. In this lesson, we will discuss ways to reduce that anxiety and create an effective emotional environment for testing.
22. Formative Assessments: Examples, Types & Definition
Find out what formative assessments are and the part they play in the learning process. Learn about the types of formative assessments and review the examples. Read the lesson, then take a quiz to test your new knowledge.
23. Giving Written Feedback to Students: Examples & Overview
This lesson will illustrate the importance of providing students written feedback and explain how to do this in the way that most impacts student achievement.
24. Measurable Goals in an IEP: Examples & Definition
Explore the world of the Individual Education Program, including the definition, the writing of measurable goals, and an example of an IEP goal. A definition of the plan and the individuals involved in its creation are discussed. Three areas of focus for drafting goals as well as the way in which goals are determined are areas of focus.
25. The Standards for Education & Psychological Testing
Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing tells readers everything they need to know about testing accurately and ethically, from classroom to counseling office to career.
26. Types of Formative Assessment
Formative assessments are an incredibly important part of the teaching process. This lesson will detail several types of formative assessments that you can use to monitor student learning in your classroom.
27. Types of Standardized Tests
In this lesson we'll cover the three most common types of standardized tests, as well as what can be inferred from these test results. A short quiz follows the lesson.
28. Understanding Standardized Test Scores
In this lesson, you'll learn about the basic terms used in standardized test scores, such as scoring curves and the standard deviation, which can help you explain test results to parents and students. You'll also discover how most students perform on standardized tests and have the chance to assess your new knowledge of the topic with a brief quiz.
29. Understanding the Common Core
The Common Core Standards are a set of standards that are becoming more prominent in education. This lesson will help you understand the Common Core so you can better teach according to the standards.
30. Using Cloze for Assessment
The cloze procedure is a useful tool for reading assessment. This lesson will detail several ways you can use the procedure to assess your students' reading comprehension and grammar skills.
31. What is Formative Assessment? - Strategies & Examples
Formative assessment can help teachers plan the most effective instruction. In this lesson, you'll learn what formative assessments are, why they are important, and multiple strategies that you can implement in the classroom.
32. Psychometrics: Definition & Test Examples
This lesson defines psychometrics and discusses what is involved in psychometric testing. It also delves into types of psychometric tests, including noting some specific examples of these tests.
33. Oral Language Skills: Definition & Assessment
In this lesson, learn what oral language skills are and the components of oral language. We will also cover how you, as an educator, can assess oral language skills.
34. Student Learning Outcomes: Examples & Assessments
This lesson will cover the differences in writing student learning outcomes (SLO) versus traditional learning objectives. Included in this will be a breakdown of how to construct student learning objectives, as well as appropriate assessments for various types of SLOs.
35. Student Assessment in the Classroom: Tools & Methods
Assessment is one of the most important things you will do in your classroom, as it drives your instruction and helps you meet each student's needs. This lesson will introduce you to some tools and methods for assessment.
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Other chapters within the Educational Psychology: Tutoring Solution course
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- Cognitive Perspective in Psychology: Tutoring Solution
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- Instructional Pedagogy: Tutoring Solution
- Individual Differences in Children: Tutoring Solution
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