About This Chapter
Astronomical Objects and Processes
This chapter starts off with a look at the different types of stars. You'll examine methods for determining star types using size, life cycle and color then move on to planets. You'll get info on the inner or terrestrial planets and find out why the outer planets are also referred to as gas giants. This chapter will introduce you to dwarf planets like Pluto, Eris, Ceres and Haumea and examine other items that make up the solar system.
You'll learn about how the galaxy was formed and explore the components of spiral, elliptical and irregular galaxies. As you progress through the chapter, you'll study quasars and pulsars and examine the life cycle of black holes, then move on to studying the sun's structure and the origins of the universe. You'll also learn how the earth's orbit around the sun affects the seasons. By the end of this chapter you should be familiar with:
- Definition of dwarf planets
- The Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud
- Types of deep space objects
- Main sequence stars
- Cycles of the Earth-moon-sun system
- The Big Bang Theory
- Expanding and contracting universes
These video lessons on astronomical objects and processes are led by instructors who are experts in their field. After you watch these short and engaging lessons, you can take a quiz to test your knowledge of the subject matter. You can use the video tags to jump back to main points in the videos or links that take you to text lessons that explain the key terms and concepts found in the lessons.
1. Types of Stars by Size, Color and Life Cycle
Learn to identify the different sizes and colors of stars and how they relate to the star life cycle. In this lesson, we'll talk about spectral classification, how many stars there are of each type and the approximate color of the different classes of stars.
2. Inner Planets of the Solar System: Mercury, Venus, Earth & Mars
Take a tour of the four inner planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Known as the terrestrial planets, find out what makes each of them unique and how they are different from the outer planets, the gas giants.
3. Outer Planets of the Solar System: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Take a tour of the outer planets of our solar system: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Find out what makes each of these gas giants unique and learn about Pluto, a dwarf planet.
4. Dwarf Planets of the Solar System: Pluto, Eris, Haumea & Ceres
Discover why Pluto had to leave the league of planets and was downgraded to a dwarf planet. Learn the definitions for planet and dwarf planet. Find out about the currently classified dwarf planets in our solar system: Pluto, Eris, Ceres, Haumea and Makemake.
5. Galaxy Formation: Spiral, Elliptical & Irregular Galaxies
This lesson explains how galaxies form, starting with the Big Bang. You'll also learn about the solar nebula hypothesis and three galaxy types, including spiral, elliptical, and irregular galaxies.
6. Life Cycle of Black Holes
Learn about black holes, their myths and their reality. Learn how black holes form after stars undergo supernovae and create singularities. Discover how big black holes grow, how scientists find black holes and where black holes are located in the universe.
7. The Role & Importance of the Sun
In this lesson, you're going to learn about the sun's importance to the earth. First you'll learn how the sun plays a part in the formation of fossil fuels. Then you'll find out what it has to do with the water cycle, wind, and waves.
8. Structure of the Sun
Discover the layers of the sun, including the core, radiative zone, convective zone, photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. Find out which layers you can see from Earth. Investigate what sunspots and solar flares are.
9. Origins of the Universe: The Big Bang and Expanding & Contracting Universes
Students will learn the origins of the universe, the Big Bang theory, the timeline of the universe, how the universe is still expanding to this day, and what astronomers expect the universe to look like in the future.
10. The Evolution of the Early Universe
This lesson will describe four important stages of development in the early universe, the radiation era, recombination (decoupling) epoch, the dark age, and reionization era.
11. The Solar Nebula Theory: Formation of the Solar System
This lesson will go over the theory that explains how the solar system formed, what theory had once competed with it, and what important implication this theory carries.
12. Interactions in the Sun-Earth-Moon System
Learn how the sun, earth, and moon interact with each other to create tides, phases, eclipses, seasons, solar winds, and precession. Take a quiz and see how much you've picked up.
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Other chapters within the FTCE Earth & Space Science 6-12 (008): Test Practice & Study Guide course
- Scientific Research & Analysis for Earth and Space Science
- Scientific Models & Tools for Earth and Space Science
- Earth Science Research & Society
- Science Laboratory Safety
- Understanding Earth's Spheres & Internal Structure
- Rocks & Minerals
- The Lithosphere
- Processes of Earth's Surface
- Geological Time
- Overview of Energy Resources
- Effects of Humans on the Environment
- Ocean & Coastal Processes
- The Atmosphere
- Weather and Storms
- Climate Phenomena
- Space Exploration
- FTCE Earth & Space Science 6-12 Flashcards