# Ch 9: Atomic and Nuclear Physics

### About This Chapter

## Atomic and Nuclear Physics - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

The lessons in this chapter cover the fundamentals of atomic and nuclear physics, including radioactive decay, nuclear reactions and disintegration energy. An experienced instructor will lead you through each topic, examining the work of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg and explaining core concepts, such as fusion and fission. This chapter can help you understand the following:

- The photoelectric effect
- Planck's constant
- Wave particle duality
- Nuclear force
- How to balance nuclear equations
- Applications of nuclear chemistry

Video | Objectives |
---|---|

Photons and the Photoelectric Effect | Describe photons and the significance of the photoelectric effect. |

Planck's Constant | Understand Planck's constant and the significance of its value. |

The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra | Draw the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom and how it relates to atomic spectra. |

Wave Particle Duality | Explore this concept of quantum mechanics. |

Einstein's Works Leads the Way for Microwave Ovens, X-rays and Lasers | Describe how the work of Einstein led to these inventions. |

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle | Discuss factors of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. |

Electron Cloud Model | Define and discuss the electron cloud model of an atom. |

Nuclear Physics: Nuclear Force and Building Energy | Define and discuss nuclear force and how it works. |

Nuclear Reaction: Definition, Examples and Quiz | Examine types of nuclear reactions and their results. |

Types of Radioactive Decay and Their Effect on the Nucleus | List the types of radioactive decay and describe their effects on the nucleus and shielding requirements. |

Balancing Nuclear Equations and Predicting the Product of a Nuclear Reaction | Know how to balance a nuclear equation and predict the product of a nuclear reaction. |

Half-Life: Calculating Radioactive Decay and Interpreting Decay Graphs | Learn to make calculations involving half-life and use a graph to determine the half-life of a radioactive sample. |

Mass-Energy Conversion, Mass Defect and Nuclear Binding Energy | Explain the relationship between mass and energy and define mass defect and nuclear binding energy. |

Fusion, Fission, Carbon Dating, Tracers and Imaging: Applications of Nuclear Chemistry | Discuss some applications of radioactive nuclides. |

Disintegration Energy | Define disintegration energy. |

### 1. The Photoelectric Effect: Definition, History, Application & Equation

In this lesson, you will learn what the photoelectric effect is, how it was discovered, how it applies to everyday life, and the equation associated with it. A short quiz will follow.

### 2. Energy & Momentum of a Photon: Equation & Calculations

After watching this lesson, you will be able to explain what wave-particle duality is, provide the equations for the energy and momentum of a photon of light, and use those equations to solve problems. A short quiz will follow.

### 3. Planck's Constant: Formula & Application

After watching this lesson, you will be able to explain what Planck's constant is and use the Planck-Einstein relation to calculate the energy in a photon of light. A short quiz will follow.

### 4. The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra

Do you ever wonder where light comes from or how it is produced? In this lesson, we are going to use our knowledge of the electron configurations and quantum numbers to see what goes on during the creation of light.

### 5. Wave-Particle Duality & the Davisson-Germer Experiment

After watching this video, you should be able to explain what wave-particle duality is, explain how the Davisson-Germer experiment contributed to our evidence for it, and use the de Broglie equation to solve problems. A short quiz will follow.

### 6. Nuclear Physics: Nuclear Force & Building Energy

After watching this video, you should be able to explain what nuclear physics is, including the concept of binding energy. You should also be able to explain how fusion and fission work. A short quiz will follow.

### 7. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: Definition & Equation

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is one of the core concepts in quantum mechanics. In this lesson, we define the uncertainty principle and learn more about its implications for physical science.

### 8. Nuclear Reaction: Definition & Examples

Learn the differences between a nuclear reaction and a chemical reaction. Also learn how the nuclear reaction involves subatomic particles including protons and neutrons. Discover the different types of nuclear reactions including fission and fusion and also how a nuclear power plant works to produce energy.

### 9. Types of Radioactive Decay and Their Effect on the Nucleus

What is meant by the term 'radioactive'? In this lesson we will break down the three main types of nuclear decay particles and discuss their composition, their effect on the nucleus, and their applications.

### 10. Balancing Nuclear Equations & Predicting the Product of a Nuclear Reaction

When a radioactive particle gives off radiation, what happens to the particle? This lesson will explain the three major types of radiation and what effect they have on the decaying atom.

### 11. Half-life: Calculating Radioactive Decay and Interpreting Decay Graphs

What causes a radioactive particle to decay? We'll never really know, but our best guess lies in probability. In this lesson, we are going to focus on the half-life, a way of measuring the probability that a particle will react.

### 12. Mass-Energy Conversion, Mass Defect and Nuclear Binding Energy

When you hear the term 'nuclear power,' what comes to mind? Do you know where that energy and power is coming from? In this lesson, we are going to zoom in on the nucleus of a helium atom to explain how something as small as a nucleus can produce an extremely large amount of energy.

### 13. Fusion, Fission, Carbon Dating, Tracers & Imaging: Applications of Nuclear Chemistry

What can the sun do that we can't? How do carbon atoms 'date'? Are radioactive isotopes helpful in the medical field? The answers to these questions can be found in this lesson on the applications of nuclear chemistry.

### 14. Disintegration Energy in Nuclear Physics: Definition & Formula

After watching this video, you should be able to explain what disintegration energy is and use mass-energy equivalence to calculate the disintegration energy in a nuclear decay reaction.

### 15. Electron Cloud: Definition, Model & Theory

Like the rapidly moving blades of a fan, electrons appear to occupy all of the space in an atom at once. Learn how electron location in an atom is best described by the electron cloud model and theory.

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### Other Chapters

Other chapters within the Physical Science Textbook course

- Understanding Matter
- Understanding Gases
- Understanding the Atom & Atomic Structure
- The Periodic Table
- Understanding Chemical Bonding
- Understanding Solutions
- Stoichiometry
- Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions
- Understanding Motion
- Force, Motion, and Newton's Laws
- Work, Energy, Power, and Thermodynamics
- Properties of Light in Physical Science
- Waves and Sound in Physical Science
- Electricity
- Thermal Physics
- Magnetism
- Intro to Organic Chemistry
- The Universe
- Intro to Atmospheric Science
- Geologic Time
- The Internal Structure of the Earth
- Plate Tectonics
- Minerals and Rocks
- Igneous Rocks
- Sedimentary Rocks: A Deeper Look
- Metamorphic Rocks: A Deeper Look
- Volcanoes
- Earthquakes
- Weathering and Erosion
- Water Balance
- Ground Water
- Coastal Hazards