About This Chapter
Who's it for?
This unit of our AP Chemistry Homeschool course will benefit any student who is trying to learn about atomic theories. There is no faster or easier way to learn about atomic structure. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who require an efficient, self-paced course of study to learn how to determine atomic and mass numbers, understand electron configurations, or count atoms using Avogadro's number.
- Homeschool parents looking to spend less time preparing lessons and more time teaching.
- Homeschool parents who need a chemistry curriculum that appeals to multiple learning types (visual or auditory).
- Gifted students and students with learning differences.
How it works:
- Students watch a short, fun video lesson that covers a specific unit topic.
- Students and parents can refer to the video transcripts to reinforce learning.
- Short quizzes and an Atomic Structure unit exam confirm understanding or identify any topics that require review.
Atomic Structure Unit Objectives:
- Define key vocabulary, such as proton, neutron, electron, atom, and mass.
- Explain how the nuclear symbol of an atom shows the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons it holds.
- Outline key concepts in early atomic theory set forth by Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, and Millikan.
- Discuss the relationship between isotope abundance and atomic mass.
- Understand the role Avogadro's number plays in counting atoms.
- Describe the appropriate electron configuration for each atomic energy level.
- Define the Aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund's Rule.
- Compare and contrast diamagnetism and paramagnetism.
- List the four quantum numbers, and demonstrate how to write them for any electron in an atom.
- Draw the Bohr model of atomic structure, and explain how it works.
- Define the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, and discuss how it explains atomic structure.
- Explain the de Broglie Hypothesis within the context of atomic structure.
1. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
2. Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.
3. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan
Imagine firing a bullet at a piece of tissue paper and having it bounce back at you! You would probably be just as surprised as Rutherford when he discovered the nucleus. In this lesson, we are going to travel back in time and discuss some of the major discoveries in the history of the atom.
4. Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass
When you drink a glass of water, you are actually drinking a combination of heavy water and light water. What's the difference? Is it harmful? This video will explain the difference between the two types of water and go into detail on the significance of the different isotopes of elements.
5. Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms
How do we move from the atomic world to the regular world? Because atoms are so tiny, how can we count and measure them? And what do chemists celebrate at 6:02 AM on October 23rd each year? In this lesson, you will be learning how Avogadro's number and the mole can answer these questions.
6. Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels
This lesson will explain what the electrons are doing inside the atom. Tune in to find out how we specify where they are located and how this location description will help us predict an element's properties.
7. Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Description & Applications
In this video, you will learn about the useful lab technique Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES). Additionally, you will study graphs made from PES data and interpret their meaning to ultimately understand how data from PES can be used to determine electron configurations and describe atomic structure.
8. Atomic Structures: Pauli Exclusion Principle, Aufbau Principle & Hund's Rule
This lesson discusses the three main rules that govern how electrons fit in the atomic structure by filling the shells, subshells, and orbitals. We will also review the basics of quantum numbers before learning these principles.
9. Diamagnetism & Paramagnetism: Definition & Explanation
In this lesson, we learn more about electron configuration through the concepts of diamagnetism and paramagnetism. We will review electron structure in an atom, and define diamagnetism and paramagnetism.
10. Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic & Spin
Each electron inside of an atom has its own 'address' that consists of four quantum numbers that communicate a great deal of information about that electron. In this lesson, we will be defining each quantum number and explaining how to write a set of quantum numbers for a specific electron.
11. The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra
Do you ever wonder where light comes from or how it is produced? In this lesson, we are going to use our knowledge of the electron configurations and quantum numbers to see what goes on during the creation of light.
12. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: Definition & Equation
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is one of the core concepts in quantum mechanics. In this lesson, we define the uncertainty principle and learn more about its implications for physical science.
13. The de Broglie Hypothesis: Definition & Significance
The de Broglie hypothesis states that particles of matter can behave as both waves and particles, just like light. In this lesson, we'll learn the basics of the de Broglie hypothesis and how it related to other theories released at the same time.
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Other chapters within the AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum course
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Properties of Matter - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- The Periodic Table of Elements - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Nuclear Chemistry - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Bonding - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Gases - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Solutions - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Stoichiometry & Chemical Equations - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Equilibrium - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Kinetics - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Thermodynamics - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Organic Chemistry - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Portions of the AP Chemistry Exam: Homeschool Curriculum