About This Chapter
Atomic Structure in Chemistry - Chapter Summary
In this chapter on atomic structure, an instructor demystifies the inner workings of the atom, including the unique characteristics associated with subatomic particles. It opens with an introduction to the early atomic theories set forth in the 1800s by scientists John Dalton, Robert Millikan, Ernest Rutherford and J.J. Thomson. The instructor will also explain how protons, neutrons and electrons are used to calculate atomic numbers and mass numbers.
A key part of this chemistry lesson includes a discussion of Avogadro's number, whereby a mole (amount of substance) can be used to count atoms. You'll also learn about the four types of quantum numbers, including angular momentum, magnetic, principal and spin. This chapter will also provide information about:
- Isotopes and average atomic mass
- Electron configurations or activities in atomic energy levels
- The Bohr's model of the atom and the origins of light
- Atomic spectroscopy and photoelectric effects
- The subatomic quarks found within atoms
Our video lessons on atomic structure and chemistry are taught by experienced and informed instructors who provide easy-to-follow explanations of this complex subject. Additional materials include lesson transcripts, where key terms are linked to text-based tutorials with more information. If you need to revisit an important part of the presentation, you can use the video tags to locate specific points without having to re-watch the entire video. You can also use the online self-assessment quizzes to see how well you understood the basic concepts covered in this chapter.
1. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan
Imagine firing a bullet at a piece of tissue paper and having it bounce back at you! You would probably be just as surprised as Rutherford when he discovered the nucleus. In this lesson, we are going to travel back in time and discuss some of the major discoveries in the history of the atom.
2. Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.
3. Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass
When you drink a glass of water, you are actually drinking a combination of heavy water and light water. What's the difference? Is it harmful? This video will explain the difference between the two types of water and go into detail on the significance of the different isotopes of elements.
4. Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms
How do we move from the atomic world to the regular world? Because atoms are so tiny, how can we count and measure them? And what do chemists celebrate at 6:02 AM on October 23rd each year? In this lesson, you will be learning how Avogadro's number and the mole can answer these questions.
5. Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels
This lesson will explain what the electrons are doing inside the atom. Tune in to find out how we specify where they are located and how this location description will help us predict an element's properties.
6. Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic & Spin
Each electron inside of an atom has its own 'address' that consists of four quantum numbers that communicate a great deal of information about that electron. In this lesson, we will be defining each quantum number and explaining how to write a set of quantum numbers for a specific electron.
7. The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra
Do you ever wonder where light comes from or how it is produced? In this lesson, we are going to use our knowledge of the electron configurations and quantum numbers to see what goes on during the creation of light.
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Other chapters within the NY Regents Exam - Chemistry: Test Prep & Practice course
- Introduction to Chemistry & Matter
- Trends of the Periodic Table
- Nuclear Processes
- Introduction to Chemical Bonds
- Properties of Liquids & Solids
- Gas Laws
- Elements, Compounds & Mixtures
- Overview of Stoichiometry
- Types of Reactions in Chemistry
- Equilibrium in Chemistry
- Reaction Rates in Chemistry
- Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- About the NY Regents Examinations
- NY Regents Exam - Chemistry Flashcards