About This Chapter
Atomic Structure & Models- Chapter Summary
If you need a review the atomic structure and models, the lessons in this chapter will thoroughly cover these topics. This chapter covers topics such as the Rutherford Model, the Bohr Model and the Quantum Mechanical Model. After completing the chapter, you should obtain the following goals:
- identify what an atom is
- Provide examples of a subatomic particle
- Summarize the cathode ray tube experiments
- Contract the Chadwick model, Rutherford model, Bohr model, and Quantum Mechanical model
- Learn the basics of the de Brogile hypothesis
- Review the concepts of the Heisenberg principle
- Explain the three principles of atomic structures
- Recall the basics of electron placement
We present these lessons to you in both video and text format. The video lessons are short and engaging, lasting five to ten minutes each. The lesson transcripts cover everything in the video, and include bold terms and phrases to stress importance of certain areas of the lesson. You will be able to retain a great deal of information, which will help you retain as much information as possible before you are comfortable enough to move forward.
1. The Atom
The physical basis that everything is composed of is called matter and the smallest unit of matter is called an atom. Learn about the atom, subatomic particles, the nucleus, elements, and the periodic table.
2. What Is a Subatomic Particle? - Definition & Mass
A subatomic particle is the umbrella term for protons, neutrons, and electrons. Discover the definitions of these subatomic particles with examples such as their mass.
3. J.J. Thomson's Cathode Ray Tube (CRT): Definition, Experiment & Diagram
In 1897, English physicist J.J. Thompson used cathode ray tubes (CRT) to conduct three experiments that would prove the existence of electrons. Explore the definition of a CRT, the impacts of Thomson's three experiments, and discover the other claim to fame of the CRT as the technology that enabled TV sets to display images before being replaced by LCD and plasma versions.
4. James Chadwick: Biography & Atomic Theory
Learn about English physicist James Chadwick, who discovered the neutron and whose research helped launch the atomic weapons race and the Manhattan Project.
5. Rutherford Model of the Atom: Definition & Diagram
The Rutherford model of the atom is one of the most popular representations of the atom. Explore the definition, diagram, development, and problems of the Rutherford model, as well as the discovery of the atom in this lesson.
6. The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra
The Bohr model of the atom established the existence of a positive nucleus surrounded by electrons in specific energy levels. As electrons move from higher-energy to lower-energy levels, energy in the atom is released in the form of photons. Learn about the Bohr Model, atomic spectra, and how electrons emit different colors of light.
7. The Quantum Mechanical Model: Definition & Overview
The quantum mechanical model of the atom, or planetary model, visualizes nuclei and electron orbitals similarly to planets orbiting a sun. Learn more about the definition of the quantum mechanical model and explore an overview of how it demonstrates the electron cloud and nuclei visually.
8. The de Broglie Hypothesis: Definition & Significance
The de Broglie hypothesis proposes that matter can exhibit both wave and particle behavior. Learn more about the implications of the de Broglie hypothesis and how to derive the equation, which actually is a combination of two others by Albert Einstein and another physicist.
9. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: Definition & Equation
A core concept in quantum mechanics is known as the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Learn more about the uncertainty principle and about Werner Karl Heisenberg, the physicist who developed the principle. Also, learn the equation for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
10. Hund's Rule, the Pauli Exclusion Principle & the Aufbau Principle
Three rules that help define electron positions within an atom are Hund's Rule, the Pauli exclusion principle, and the Aufbau principle. Discover how these inform quantum physics, the arrangement of electrons, and the order in which shells and sub shells are occupied.
11. Electron Configurations in the s, p & d Orbitals
The electron orbitals hold specific numbers of electrons, organized into orbitals of s, p, and d. Explore the detailed configurations of these orbitals to see how they are filled into order and achieve specific energy levels.
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Other chapters within the ISC Chemistry: Study Guide & Syllabus course
- Basic Concepts of Chemistry
- Measurement in Chemistry
- Periodic Table & Periodicity
- Representative Elements
- Compounds of Element Groups
- Types of Chemical Bonding
- Covalent Bonds
- Characteristics of Gases
- Properties of Colloids
- Rates of Chemical Reactions
- Heat, Work & Energy
- Redox Reactions
- Organic Compounds in Chemistry
- Chemical Reaction Mechanisms
- Aliphatic & Aromatic Hydrocarbons
- Everyday Chemistry
- Chemistry & the Environment
- Relative Molecular Mass & Mole
- Solid State Structure & Properties
- Chemical Dynamics & Reaction Rates
- Chemical Equilibria
- Ionic Equilibria
- Electrochemistry & Voltaic Cells
- Coordination Compounds
- Chemistry of p-Block Elements
- Chemistry of Transition & Inner-Transition Elements
- Alkyl & Aryl Halides
- Alcohols & Phenols
- Ethers & Carbonyl Compounds
- Cyanides, Isocyanides & Nitro Compounds
- Polymer Basics
- Types of Biomolecules
- ISC Chemistry Flashcards