About This Chapter
In this chapter, you'll take a look at atomic structures. Our instructor will lead you through lessons that cover early atomic theory and the periodic table. You'll study elements, compounds and molecules. Throughout the chapter, the lessons will continue to build upon the basic ideas of atoms to help you understand all the different related concepts. Some of the things that will be covered include:
- How to determine atomic number
- How atoms and ions determine formulas
- How ionic bonds are formed
- Nonpolar and polar covalent bonding
- The octet rule
- The findings of early atomic theory
|Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan||Explore the findings of pioneering atomic scientists John Dalton, J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford and Robert Millikan.|
|Elements||Discover what an element is and how elements are used as building blocks.|
|The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods||Examine the periodic table and how it is used.|
|Atomic Number and Mass Number||Learn how to determine the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom.|
|Compounds & Molecules||Study how compounds and molecules are built from elements.|
|Formulas & Ions||Analyze how atoms and ions determine formulas.|
|Understanding Ionic and Hydrogen Bonds: Definitions and Examples||Explore ionic and hydrogen bonds.|
|Understanding Covalent Bonds||Discover nonpolar and polar covalent bonding, including how peptide and metallic bonds are examples of covalent bonds.|
|Covalent Bonding and Electron Shells: Definitions, Relationship & the Octet Rule||Examine the octet rule through the relationship between valence electrons and covalent bonding.|
1. What Are Elements?
Look around you. What do you see? Elements are everywhere. They are the building blocks of all matter on Earth. In this lesson, we will discuss what an element is, how elements are written as symbols, and how elements are the building blocks of all matter.
2. Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.
3. The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods
How is the periodic table like the map you used on your last road trip? In this lesson, you will be introduced to the periodic table, the road map of chemists. We will discuss how the elements are organized and how you can use this organization to identify some of their major physical properties.
4. Ionic Bonds: Definitions and Examples
Did you know that when atoms stick together to form molecules, they gain and lose electrons, making them negatively or positively charged? In this lesson, you will learn how cations and anions form one type of chemical bond called an ionic bond.
5. Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds: Definitions and Examples
Did you know that some types of chemical bonds behave similarly to the way that children play with toys? In this lesson, you will learn about two types of bonds called polar and nonpolar covalent bonds.
6. Covalent Bonding and Electron Shells: Definitions, Relationship & the Octet Rule
Learn about the different electron shells of atoms as well as the octet rule for valence electrons and how that applies to covalent bonding. Discover the definition of covalent bonding and the relationships between atoms.
7. Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen
This lesson defines and discusses important concepts behind hydrogen bonding. You'll learn when and why these bonds occur and which atoms are often involved.
8. States of Matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases, & Plasma
Learn the four states of matter in the universe: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Learn about the differences in shape and volume among the four states, which of the states is the most common and why plasma conducts electricity.
9. Common Chemical Reactions and Energy Change
This lesson covers the five common types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion. You will learn how to predict what kind of chemical reaction will occur. You'll also explore how matter is conserved, but energy can change.
10. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Explore a chemical reaction at the molecular level. Learn about exothermic and endothermic reactions, what they look like and what happens when they occur. Understand enthalpy and how you can use it to predict whether a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic.
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Other chapters within the Science 101: Intro to Natural Sciences course
- Introduction to Thermodynamics
- Cell Biology Fundamentals
- Introduction to Molecular Biology
- Introduction to Biochemistry
- Cellular Reproduction Processes
- Molecular Genetics Overview
- Plant Anatomy, Physiology & Processes
- Animal Reproduction, Growth and Development
- Animal Anatomy, Physiology & Functions
- Human Anatomy & Physiology
- Environmental Science Fundamentals
- Introduction to Ecology
- Basics of Evolution
- The Origin and History of Life On Earth
- Phylogeny and the Classification of Organisms
- Studying for Science 101