About This Chapter
Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
This chapter is designed to provide you with an easy-to-understand explanation of the most fundamental forms of matter found in you, me and the world around us! At the beginning of the tutorial, you'll get an inside look at the different parts of these microscopic particles, and find out how they can combine to form molecules. The instructor will also introduce you to the pioneers of atomic theory, including John Dalton, Ernest Rutherford, J.J. Thomson and Robert Millikan.
Each video is devoted to an individual aspect or theory of the atom, such as how to use a mole, or scientific unit of measurement, to count atoms. You'll also learn how to work with the quantum figures used to specify the four numbers unique to every electron. Chemical and ionic bonds will also be discussed, including those formed by electrically charged atoms or molecules. When you've finished this chapter, you should have an understanding of:
- The history of atomic theory
- How to calculate the number of protons, electrons and neutrons found in the nucleus of an atom
- Isotopes as variations of chemical elements and their relationship to atomic mass
- How to calculate atomic mass and quantity
- The unique properties of elements and how they combine to form compounds and molecules
- The chemical and ionic bonds formed between atoms
- The basis of molecular formulas
- How elements can be identified by the atomic spectra and emitted light
|The Atom||Understand the following scientific references and terms: chemistry, atom, nucleus, proton, electron, neutron, atomic number and mass.|
|Atomic Number and Mass Number||Calculate the atomic and mass numbers of an atom, and use the nuclear symbol of an atom to determine the number of protons, electrons and neutrons.|
|Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan||Discuss the findings of scientists Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan.|
|Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass||Define isotope and the relationship between isotope abundance and the atomic mass of an element.|
|Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms||Describe Avogardo's number and how it is used to count atoms. Make calculations related to atomic mass and quantity.|
|Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels||Find the number of electrons needed to fill quantized energy levels in atoms and molecules. Write an electron configuration for an atom of any element.|
|Principles and Rules of Atomic Structures||Identify the rules of thumb associated with atomic structures.|
|The Law of Conservation||Define and discuss the principle of mass conservation, or how the quantity of a chemical mass remains the same over time.|
|Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism||Explain how diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials produce magnetic fields.|
|Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic and Spin||Write the four quantum numbers for any electron in an atom.|
|The de Brogile Hypothesis||Understand how the de Brogile theory can be used to explain the particle-wave properties of matter in quantum mechanics.|
|Ionic Bonds: Definitions and Examples||Discuss and model ionic bonds. Describe how anions and cations, or negatively and positively charged subparticles, form ionic bonds.|
|How Compounds and Molecules Are Built From Elements||Explain how elements can form compounds and molecules.|
|Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds: Definitions and Examples||Discuss and model nonpolar and polar covalent bonds. Describe how a peptide bond can serve as an example of a covalent bond.|
|Using Atoms and Ions to Determine Molecular Formulas||Understand how atoms and ions determine molecular formulas.|
|The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra||Explain the Bohr theory of the atom and how the colored lines formed by the emitted light of atoms can be used to identify an element.|
1. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
2. Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.
3. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan
Imagine firing a bullet at a piece of tissue paper and having it bounce back at you! You would probably be just as surprised as Rutherford when he discovered the nucleus. In this lesson, we are going to travel back in time and discuss some of the major discoveries in the history of the atom.
4. Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass
When you drink a glass of water, you are actually drinking a combination of heavy water and light water. What's the difference? Is it harmful? This video will explain the difference between the two types of water and go into detail on the significance of the different isotopes of elements.
5. Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms
How do we move from the atomic world to the regular world? Because atoms are so tiny, how can we count and measure them? And what do chemists celebrate at 6:02 AM on October 23rd each year? In this lesson, you will be learning how Avogadro's number and the mole can answer these questions.
6. Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels
This lesson will explain what the electrons are doing inside the atom. Tune in to find out how we specify where they are located and how this location description will help us predict an element's properties.
7. Atomic Structures: Pauli Exclusion Principle, Aufbau Principle & Hund's Rule
This lesson discusses the three main rules that govern how electrons fit in the atomic structure by filling the shells, subshells, and orbitals. We will also review the basics of quantum numbers before learning these principles.
8. The Law of Conservation of Mass: Definition, Equation & Examples
Read about the law of conservation of mass, its role in chemistry, and its importance in the universe. Learn the equation, review examples, and test your knowledge of the material with a short quiz.
9. Diamagnetism & Paramagnetism: Definition & Explanation
In this lesson, we learn more about electron configuration through the concepts of diamagnetism and paramagnetism. We will review electron structure in an atom, and define diamagnetism and paramagnetism.
10. Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic & Spin
Each electron inside of an atom has its own 'address' that consists of four quantum numbers that communicate a great deal of information about that electron. In this lesson, we will be defining each quantum number and explaining how to write a set of quantum numbers for a specific electron.
11. The de Broglie Hypothesis: Definition & Significance
The de Broglie hypothesis states that particles of matter can behave as both waves and particles, just like light. In this lesson, we'll learn the basics of the de Broglie hypothesis and how it related to other theories released at the same time.
12. Ionic Bonds: Definitions and Examples
Did you know that when atoms stick together to form molecules, they gain and lose electrons, making them negatively or positively charged? In this lesson, you will learn how cations and anions form one type of chemical bond called an ionic bond.
13. How Compounds and Molecules Are Built From Elements
Did you know that elements are somewhat like people and have different personalities? Some elements like to be left alone. Others prefer to hang out with friends. We will discuss how elements build molecules and compounds and how these can be classified.
14. Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds: Definitions and Examples
Did you know that some types of chemical bonds behave similarly to the way that children play with toys? In this lesson, you will learn about two types of bonds called polar and nonpolar covalent bonds.
15. Using Atoms and Ions to Determine Molecular Formulas
In this lesson, you will learn how atoms and ions determine molecular formulas. You will understand how molecular formulas tell information about the type and quantity of atoms involved in a molecule. Lastly, we will discuss how to write a molecular formula for an ionic compound.
16. The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra
Do you ever wonder where light comes from or how it is produced? In this lesson, we are going to use our knowledge of the electron configurations and quantum numbers to see what goes on during the creation of light.
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Other chapters within the DSST Principles of Physical Science: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Newton's Laws of Motion
- Energy and Momentum
- Thermodynamics in Physical Science
- Waves and Optics
- Electric Power & Electricity
- Properties of Matter in Chemistry
- Kinetics in Chemistry
- Elements, Compounds, Mixtures & Solutions
- Bonding in Chemistry
- Gases & Gas Laws
- The Periodic Table
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids in Chemistry
- Acids, Bases and Reactions in Chemistry
- Chemistry Lab Basics
- DSST Informational Resources
- DSST Principles of Physical Science Flashcards