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Ch 14: Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure

About This Chapter

Watch video lessons and learn about the atomic structures and theories associated with the basic forms of matter. These video lessons are short and engaging and make learning easy!

Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

This chapter is designed to provide you with an easy-to-understand explanation of the most fundamental forms of matter found in you, me and the world around us! At the beginning of the tutorial, you'll get an inside look at the different parts of these microscopic particles, and find out how they can combine to form molecules. The instructor will also introduce you to the pioneers of atomic theory, including John Dalton, Ernest Rutherford, J.J. Thomson and Robert Millikan.

Each video is devoted to an individual aspect or theory of the atom, such as how to use a mole, or scientific unit of measurement, to count atoms. You'll also learn how to work with the quantum figures used to specify the four numbers unique to every electron. Chemical and ionic bonds will also be discussed, including those formed by electrically charged atoms or molecules. When you've finished this chapter, you should have an understanding of:

  • The history of atomic theory
  • How to calculate the number of protons, electrons and neutrons found in the nucleus of an atom
  • Isotopes as variations of chemical elements and their relationship to atomic mass
  • How to calculate atomic mass and quantity
  • The unique properties of elements and how they combine to form compounds and molecules
  • The chemical and ionic bonds formed between atoms
  • The basis of molecular formulas
  • How elements can be identified by the atomic spectra and emitted light

Video Objective
The Atom Understand the following scientific references and terms: chemistry, atom, nucleus, proton, electron, neutron, atomic number and mass.
Atomic Number and Mass NumberCalculate the atomic and mass numbers of an atom, and use the nuclear symbol of an atom to determine the number of protons, electrons and neutrons.
Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and MillikanDiscuss the findings of scientists Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan.
Isotopes and Average Atomic MassDefine isotope and the relationship between isotope abundance and the atomic mass of an element.
Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count AtomsDescribe Avogardo's number and how it is used to count atoms. Make calculations related to atomic mass and quantity.
Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy LevelsFind the number of electrons needed to fill quantized energy levels in atoms and molecules. Write an electron configuration for an atom of any element.
Principles and Rules of Atomic StructuresIdentify the rules of thumb associated with atomic structures.
The Law of ConservationDefine and discuss the principle of mass conservation, or how the quantity of a chemical mass remains the same over time.
Diamagnetism and ParamagnetismExplain how diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials produce magnetic fields.
Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic and SpinWrite the four quantum numbers for any electron in an atom.
The de Brogile HypothesisUnderstand how the de Brogile theory can be used to explain the particle-wave properties of matter in quantum mechanics.
Ionic Bonds: Definitions and ExamplesDiscuss and model ionic bonds. Describe how anions and cations, or negatively and positively charged subparticles, form ionic bonds.
How Compounds and Molecules Are Built From ElementsExplain how elements can form compounds and molecules.
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds: Definitions and ExamplesDiscuss and model nonpolar and polar covalent bonds. Describe how a peptide bond can serve as an example of a covalent bond.
Using Atoms and Ions to Determine Molecular FormulasUnderstand how atoms and ions determine molecular formulas.
The Bohr Model and Atomic SpectraExplain the Bohr theory of the atom and how the colored lines formed by the emitted light of atoms can be used to identify an element.

16 Lessons in Chapter 14: Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
The Atom

1. The Atom

Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?

Atomic Number and Mass Number

2. Atomic Number and Mass Number

Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.

Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan

3. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan

Imagine firing a bullet at a piece of tissue paper and having it bounce back at you! You would probably be just as surprised as Rutherford when he discovered the nucleus. In this lesson, we are going to travel back in time and discuss some of the major discoveries in the history of the atom.

Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass

4. Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass

When you drink a glass of water, you are actually drinking a combination of heavy water and light water. What's the difference? Is it harmful? This video will explain the difference between the two types of water and go into detail on the significance of the different isotopes of elements.

Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms

5. Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms

How do we move from the atomic world to the regular world? Because atoms are so tiny, how can we count and measure them? And what do chemists celebrate at 6:02 AM on October 23rd each year? In this lesson, you will be learning how Avogadro's number and the mole can answer these questions.

Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels

6. Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels

This lesson will explain what the electrons are doing inside the atom. Tune in to find out how we specify where they are located and how this location description will help us predict an element's properties.

Atomic Structures: Pauli Exclusion Principle, Aufbau Principle & Hund's Rule

7. Atomic Structures: Pauli Exclusion Principle, Aufbau Principle & Hund's Rule

This lesson discusses the three main rules that govern how electrons fit in the atomic structure by filling the shells, subshells, and orbitals. We will also review the basics of quantum numbers before learning these principles.

The Law of Conservation of Mass: Definition, Equation & Examples

8. The Law of Conservation of Mass: Definition, Equation & Examples

Read about the law of conservation of mass, its role in chemistry, and its importance in the universe. Learn the equation, review examples, and test your knowledge of the material with a short quiz.

Diamagnetism & Paramagnetism: Definition & Explanation

9. Diamagnetism & Paramagnetism: Definition & Explanation

In this lesson, we learn more about electron configuration through the concepts of diamagnetism and paramagnetism. We will review electron structure in an atom, and define diamagnetism and paramagnetism.

Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic & Spin

10. Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic & Spin

Each electron inside of an atom has its own 'address' that consists of four quantum numbers that communicate a great deal of information about that electron. In this lesson, we will be defining each quantum number and explaining how to write a set of quantum numbers for a specific electron.

The de Broglie Hypothesis: Definition & Significance

11. The de Broglie Hypothesis: Definition & Significance

The de Broglie hypothesis states that particles of matter can behave as both waves and particles, just like light. In this lesson, we'll learn the basics of the de Broglie hypothesis and how it related to other theories released at the same time.

Ionic Bonds: Definitions and Examples

12. Ionic Bonds: Definitions and Examples

Did you know that when atoms stick together to form molecules, they gain and lose electrons, making them negatively or positively charged? In this lesson, you will learn how cations and anions form one type of chemical bond called an ionic bond.

How Compounds and Molecules Are Built From Elements

13. How Compounds and Molecules Are Built From Elements

Did you know that elements are somewhat like people and have different personalities? Some elements like to be left alone. Others prefer to hang out with friends. We will discuss how elements build molecules and compounds and how these can be classified.

Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds: Definitions and Examples

14. Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds: Definitions and Examples

Did you know that some types of chemical bonds behave similarly to the way that children play with toys? In this lesson, you will learn about two types of bonds called polar and nonpolar covalent bonds.

Using Atoms and Ions to Determine Molecular Formulas

15. Using Atoms and Ions to Determine Molecular Formulas

In this lesson, you will learn how atoms and ions determine molecular formulas. You will understand how molecular formulas tell information about the type and quantity of atoms involved in a molecule. Lastly, we will discuss how to write a molecular formula for an ionic compound.

The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra

16. The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra

Do you ever wonder where light comes from or how it is produced? In this lesson, we are going to use our knowledge of the electron configurations and quantum numbers to see what goes on during the creation of light.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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