Ch 2: Atoms: Help and Review

About This Chapter

The Atoms chapter of this College-Level General Chemistry Help and Review course is the simplest way to master atoms. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure students learn the essentials of atoms.

Who's it for?

Anyone who needs help learning or mastering college-level general chemistry material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn college-level general chemistry. Among those who would benefit are:

  • Students who have fallen behind in understanding early atomic theory or working with atomic and mass numbers
  • Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
  • Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
  • Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
  • Students who need an efficient way to learn about atoms
  • Students who struggle to understand their teachers
  • Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources

How it works:

  • Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
  • Press play and watch the video lesson.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the Atoms chapter exam.

Why it works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know; review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Atoms chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any atoms question. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students will review:

This chapter helps students review the concepts in an Atoms unit of a standard college-level general chemistry course. Topics covered include:

  • Isotopes and average atomic mass
  • Avogadro's number
  • Electron configurations in atomic energy levels
  • Quantum numbers, including principal, angular momentum, magnetic and spin
  • The Bohr model and atomic spectra

16 Lessons in Chapter 2: Atoms: Help and Review
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Atomic Number and Mass Number

1. Atomic Number and Mass Number

Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.

Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan

2. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan

Imagine firing a bullet at a piece of tissue paper and having it bounce back at you! You would probably be just as surprised as Rutherford when he discovered the nucleus. In this lesson, we are going to travel back in time and discuss some of the major discoveries in the history of the atom.

Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass

3. Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass

When you drink a glass of water, you are actually drinking a combination of heavy water and light water. What's the difference? Is it harmful? This video will explain the difference between the two types of water and go into detail on the significance of the different isotopes of elements.

Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms

4. Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms

How do we move from the atomic world to the regular world? Because atoms are so tiny, how can we count and measure them? And what do chemists celebrate at 6:02 AM on October 23rd each year? In this lesson, you will be learning how Avogadro's number and the mole can answer these questions.

Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels

5. Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels

This lesson will explain what the electrons are doing inside the atom. Tune in to find out how we specify where they are located and how this location description will help us predict an element's properties.

Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic & Spin

6. Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic & Spin

Each electron inside of an atom has its own 'address' that consists of four quantum numbers that communicate a great deal of information about that electron. In this lesson, we will be defining each quantum number and explaining how to write a set of quantum numbers for a specific electron.

The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra

7. The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra

Do you ever wonder where light comes from or how it is produced? In this lesson, we are going to use our knowledge of the electron configurations and quantum numbers to see what goes on during the creation of light.

The Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

8. The Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

When we are looking at the atomic number of an element in the periodic table, we may not know it, but these elements may have isotopes. This depends on the number of their neutrons. In this lesson, we will learn about the three isotopes of hydrogen.

Absorption Spectroscopy: Definition & Types

9. Absorption Spectroscopy: Definition & Types

In this lesson, we'll learn about absorption spectroscopy. Read on to learn how this spectroanalytical procedure works, what it can be used for and different kinds of absorption spectroscopy, then test your knowledge with a quiz.

The Aufbau Principle

10. The Aufbau Principle

The Aufbau principle explains how electrons fill up orbitals and shells inside an atom. It is used by chemists to predict the types of chemical bonds that an atom is likely to form. Learn more about it in this lesson.

Robert Millikan: Biography, Atomic Theory & Oil Drop Experiment

11. Robert Millikan: Biography, Atomic Theory & Oil Drop Experiment

Learn about the life and achievements of American physicist Robert Millikan. His oil drop experiment helped to quantify the charge of an electron, which contributed greatly to our understanding of the structure of the atom and atomic theory.

Cations: Definition & Examples

12. Cations: Definition & Examples

In this lesson, you will learn that cations are positively charged atoms, and you will discover how they are formed. You will also become familiar with some common cations, and you should be able to determine which atoms form cations.

Henry Moseley: Biography & Atomic Theory

13. Henry Moseley: Biography & Atomic Theory

Physicist Henry Moseley discovered the atomic number of each element using x-rays, which led to more accurate organization of the periodic table. We will cover his life and discovery of the relationship between atomic number and x-ray frequency, known as Moseley's Law.

Absolute Configuration: Rules & Example

14. Absolute Configuration: Rules & Example

Learn the rules for assigning the absolute configuration at a chiral carbon atom in an organic molecule, as well as how to assign R and S stereochemistry. You'll also see examples that will help you approach problems involving stereochemistry.

What is Chemistry? - Definition, History & Branches

15. What is Chemistry? - Definition, History & Branches

Known as the central science, chemistry is integral to our understanding of the natural world around us. In this lesson, you'll be introduced to the field of chemistry, learning about its history and its modern applications.

Hydrogen: Properties & Occurrence

16. Hydrogen: Properties & Occurrence

Hydrogen is the most commonly found element in the universe. In this lesson we will learn about properties of hydrogen, from its place on the periodic table of elements to its physical and chemical properties.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
Not Taken
Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
Not Taken

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