About This Chapter
Attention and Memory of the Aging Population - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
People have several types of memories, in both the short term and longer term, such as sensory, semantic, episodic, declarative, explicit, implicit and procedural. You can learn all about the details and find out when you might use each of these memory types. These lessons also outline strategies for improving both short and long term memory, no matter your age. As people get older, they face special challenges related to memory. This chapter can help you understand the following:
- Differences between implicit and explicit memory
- Selective attention
- Principle of chunking
- Self-referencing, mnemonic devices and rehearsal
|Categorizing Memory||Use this lesson to study sensory, iconic, echoic, semantic, episodic, explicit, implicit and procedural memory.|
|Attention and Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Processing||Find out the definitions of attention and selective attention, and learn to compare top-down to bottom-up processing.|
|Attentional Control||This lesson discusses processing speed and the age differences in processing speed. We'll also define processing resources and automatic processes, and contrast them with effortful processing, showing the effects of age on these processes.|
|Sensory Memory: Differential Age Changes in Attention and Memory||Here we'll discuss the areas where we observe differential age changes in attention and memory.|
|Perceptual Development||This lesson explains the importance of touch, taste and smell in infants and how they develop over time.|
|Working Memory||In this lesson, we'll define working memory and discuss what age differences have been found in working memory.|
|Improving Short Term Memory||This lesson explains the strategy of chunking and gives examples.|
|Implicit versus Explicit Memory||Use this lesson to understand implicit and explicit memory and their age-related differences. Find out what accounts for the fact that implicit memory is spared with aging.|
|How Age Affects Long Term Memory||This lesson explains how age differences in episodic and semantic memory compare, and discusses what differences have been observed between older and younger adult in aspects of autobiographical memory and procedural memory.|
|Improving Long Term Memory||In this lesson, we'll go over methods utilizing mnemonic devices, acronyms, self-referencing, rehearsal and spaced repetition.|
|Recognition versus Recall||This lesson explains the differences between recognition and recall.|
|Memory Distortion||This lesson covers schema, source amnesia, choice-supportive bias and cognitive dissonance.|
|Types of Heuristics: Availability, Representativeness & Base-Rate||Learn about availability, representativeness and base-rate heuristics.|
|How Memory Changes With Age||Find out what evidence exists for age differences in encoding and retrieval. Discover what age differences have been found in the use of memory strategies, and how age differences compare in automatic versus deliberate retrieval. Learn how processing of misinformation differs in older and younger adults.|
|Factors Influencing Memory||This lesson discusses factors that influence memory, including anxiety, pacing, motivation, expertise (compensation for losses), interventions, ecological validity, normal vs. pathological losses, and memory aids.|
1. Categories of Memory: Sensory & Long-Term
Did you know that there are several types of memories? How does your brain keep track of them all? In this lesson, as you observe your surroundings at an art museum, you'll come to understand how your brain categorizes memory so you can remember your experiences.
2. Attention and Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Processing
Are you a big-picture person or do you get caught up in the details? Explore two ways that you can use your cognitive resources to focus your attention. This lesson provides both the details and the big picture for top-down and bottom-up processing.
3. Attentional Control, Processing Speed, and the Effect of Aging
In this lesson, we look at the overlap between attention and processing speed as well as how age influences them. This includes the process of heavy mental effort becoming more automated.
4. Memory and Information Processing in Adults
During middle age, many people notice that they aren't as mentally sharp as they once were. During this lesson, we'll look at cognitive abilities that decline in middle adulthood, including information processing and working memory.
5. Perceptual Development in Infants
Why are some senses more developed than others for a newborn? You'll learn which senses are initially important for infants to bond with and recognize their mothers and which one is still in development after birth.
6. What is Working Memory? - Definition, Components & Examples
In this lesson, we will explore what working memory is, how it relates to short term memory and how it works. In addition, we will examine the slow degrade of it as we age.
7. George Miller's Psychological Study to Improve Short-Term Memory
Wouldn't it be nice to improve your short-term memory? According to one psychological study, there are, in fact, ways you can organize sets of new information to make them easier to remember. Based on the study, this lesson examines a method that can increase your short-term memory.
8. Implicit versus Explicit Memory: Definitions & Differences
In this lesson, we will explore what implicit and explicit memories are, as well as each of their sub-components. Furthermore, we will discuss how age influences each of these sub-components.
9. How Age Affects Long-Term Memory
In this lesson we examine what long-term memory is, taking a look at the different types or memories and how they form. We will also look at how age influences the creation, storage and retrieval of long-term memories.
10. Using Psychology to Improve Long-Term Memory
What are some tips for improving your memory? This memorable lesson on memory covers self-referencing, mnemonic devices, spaced repetition and rehearsal. You won't want to cram for exams once you learn these better ways to improve your long-term memory!
11. Recognition vs Recall: Definitions & Differences
In this lesson, we will explore the different levels of memory and why there are some things that come really easily to mind and why other things are difficult to remember.
12. Memory Distortion: Source Amnesia, Misinformation Effect & Choice-Supportive Bias
With all the information we learn and process every day, it can be difficult to remember things accurately. Because of this, our memory can become distorted. In this lesson, we'll learn how our brain can trick us into falsely remembering details of our past experiences.
13. Types of Heuristics: Availability, Representativeness & Base-Rate
Did you know that our brain uses strategies to process information and draw conclusions? Although we're able to reach conclusions through these mental strategies, sometimes, our reasoning can be off. Read on to discover how our brain draws these conclusions and why they can be wrong.
14. How Memory Changes With Age
In this lesson, we will look at some basic information on the brain and see how memory changes over time due to the physiological changes that occur to the brain.
15. Factors Influencing Memory: Definition, Types & Examples
In this lesson, we will explore common, and not so common, factors which influence memory. Influence can be in a detracting way as well as positive. Furthermore, we will look at memory testing and interventions
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Other chapters within the Psychology of Adulthood & Aging for Teachers: Professional Development course
- Introduction to Adult Development and Aging
- Political and Ethical Issues in Studying Adult Development and Aging
- Research Methods and the Study of Adult Development and Aging
- Conducting Ethical Research
- Personality & Aging
- Health of the Aging Population
- The Aging Muscle, Skeletal, and Integumentary Systems
- The Aging Sensory System
- The Aging Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
- The Aging Brain and Nervous System
- The Aging Endocrine and Reproductive Systems
- Chronic Conditions of the Aging Population
- Cognitive Development & Aging
- Intelligence, Creativity, and Wisdom
- Mental Health and Lifespan Development Disorders
- Clinical Assessment in Psychology
- Anxiety Disorders Related to Aging
- Substance Use Disorders & Aging Populations
- Cognitive Disorders in Abnormal Psychology
- Mood and Stress Disorders
- Treatment Methods for Psychological Disorders in Adults
- Relationships in Adulthood
- Work in Early, Middle, and Late Adulthood
- Retirement and Leisure in Adulthood
- Death, Dying, and Bereavement