About This Chapter
Attraction & Close Relationships - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Nothing seems to stir people quite as much as love. Love has been the topic of countless songs, books and movies. The ideas of what make a person attractive, why two people fall in love and what is love have all been tackled in the different forms of media. This chapter is going along with the crowd and taking a look at love, attraction and close relationships. However, we aren't going to look at it through the rose-colored glasses of Hollywood. Instead, we are going to look at it through the critical eyes of researchers. We will tackle topics like the propinquity effect, reciprocal liking and the 'babyface' phenomenon. These lessons will help you to understand more about things like:
- Traits associated with physical attractiveness
- The eight types of love according to Sternberg
- The theory of love that has its roots in WWII
- Why jealousy occurs
- The reasons relationships end
- Examples of the equity theory of love
|Mere Exposure and the Propinquity Effect: Theory & Examples||Take a look at mere exposure and its link to the propinquity effect.|
|Similarity, Reciprocal Liking and Ingratiation: Definition & Examples||Discover more about the role of similarity in attraction.|
|Physical Traits and Attraction: Symmetry, Ratios & the 'Babyface' Phenomenon||Analyze how physical traits related to attraction, specifically symmetry and ratios.|
|The Halo Effect: Definition, Advantages & Disadvantages||Examine research on the traits associated with physical attractiveness.|
|Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love: Definition, Examples & Predictions||Explore Sternberg's triangular theory of love.|
|The Equity Theory of Love: Definition, Examples & Predictions||Find out more about the equity theory of love.|
|Interdependence Theory: Definition, Examples & Predictions||Learn about the social exchange theory of love.|
|The Attachment Theory of Love: Definition, Examples & Predictions||Study the attachment theory of love and discuss its historical roots in WWII.|
|The Evolutionary Theory of Love: Definition, Examples & Predictions||Describe the foundational tenets and theories of the evolutionary theory.|
|Ending Relationships, Disengagement Strategies & the Detachment Process||Discuss the reasons relationships end and the disengagement strategies used.|
1. Mere Exposure and the Propinquity Effect: Theory & Examples
The mere exposure effect and the propinquity effect both influence our development of close relationships. Explore theory of the mere exposure and propinquity effects and analyze examples of the two phenomena in the Westgate Studies.
2. Similarity, Reciprocal Liking and Ingratiation: Definition & Examples
As individuals, we like some people more than we like others. Explore the concepts of liking and attraction, and examine how they are affected by similarity, reciprocal liking, and ingratiation. Review definitions and examples for each of these concepts.
3. Physical Traits and Attraction: Symmetry, Ratios & the ''Babyface'' Phenomenon
Research has shown that physical attractiveness is a very important determinant of liking someone. Discover three physical traits that are fairly universal across the world, regardless of culture, including: ratios (waist-to-hip ratio in women; shoulder-to-waist ratio in men); facial symmetry, where each side of the face is an exact mirror of the other; and the baby-face phenomenon in which infant-like features (large eyes, thick lips) are considered attractive.
4. The Halo Effect: Definition, Advantages & Disadvantages
Halo effect is the tendency to influence some aspect due to a positive impression on another characteristic or feature. Learn about the definition, examples, advantages, and disadvantages of the halo effect.
5. Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love: Definition, Examples & Predictions
Robert Sternberg's triangular theory of love holds that love is made up of three components (intimacy, passion, and commitment), which can be visualized on a triangle, and that there are eight types of love, which are different combinations of these three components. Explore the types of love made from the combinations of intimacy, passion, and/or commitment, and why the eighth type of love is considered rare and difficult to maintain.
6. The Equity Theory of Love: Definition, Examples & Predictions
Equity theory suggests that people are more satisfied with a relationship in which there is equal give and take by both parties. Explore how this theory relates to love, and discover examples and predictions of this theory, and the role of equality in relationships.
7. Social Exchange Theory in Relationships: Definition, Examples & Predictions
Social exchange theory says that the relationships we choose to create and maintain are the ones that maximize our rewards and minimize our costs. Explore examples of this theory, predictions, cost-benefit analysis, comparison level, and comparison level of alternatives.
8. The Attachment Theory of Love: Definition, Examples & Predictions
The Attachment Theory of Love suggests that the type of romantic relationship one has as an adult is determined by the type of relationship one had with one's primary caregiver as a child. Explore this theory definition, examples, attachment styles, and predictions about adult relationships.
9. The Evolutionary Theory of Love: Definition, Examples & Predictions
The evolutionary theory of love states that love functions to attract and retain a mate for the purpose of reproducing and then caring for the resulting offspring. Explore this definition, examples, and predictions of attraction, promiscuity, and jealousy.
10. Ending Relationships, Disengagement Strategies & the Detachment Process
When ending a relationship, there are common disengagement strategies individuals use to end said relationship, as well as detachment processes that an individual will experience. Learn more about Leslie Baxter's four categories of disengagement strategies (avoidance/withdrawal, manipulation, positive tone, open confrontation) and the four stages of the dissolution/detachment process: intrapersonal, dyadic, social, and intrapersonal (again.)
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 220 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the Psychology 104: Social Psychology course