Ch 3: Bacterial Biology: Help and Review

About This Chapter

The Bacterial Biology chapter of this Microbiology Help and Review course is the simplest way to master bacterial biology. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure you learn the essentials of bacterial biology.

Who's it for?

Anyone who needs help learning or mastering microbiology material will benefit from taking this course. You will be able to grasp the subject matter faster, retain critical knowledge longer and earn better grades. You're in the right place if you:

  • Have fallen behind in understanding how bacterial cells are classified and structured.
  • Need an efficient way to learn about bacterial biology.
  • Learn best with engaging auditory and visual tools.
  • Struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD.
  • Experience difficulty understanding your teachers.
  • Missed class time and need to catch up.
  • Can't access extra science learning resources at school.

How it works:

  • Start at the beginning, or identify the topics that you need help with.
  • Watch and learn from fun videos, reviewing as needed.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Submit questions to one of our instructors for personalized support if you need extra help.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the Bacterial Biology chapter exam.

Why it works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Bacterial Biology chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any relevant question. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students will review:

In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:

  • What criteria are used to classify bacterial cells?
  • What are the parts of a bacterial cell, and how do they function?
  • What are bacterial endospores, genomes and plasmids?
  • How do bacterial cells adapt to their environments and conjugate?
  • How does aerobic and anaerobic bacterial metabolism work?
  • What are the primary characteristics and growth needs of E. coli?

37 Lessons in Chapter 3: Bacterial Biology: Help and Review
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Bacterial Cell Morphology and Classification: Definition, Shapes & Arrangements

1. Bacterial Cell Morphology and Classification: Definition, Shapes & Arrangements

Bacterial cell morphology can be classified into three main shapes, which are coccus, bacillus, and spiral. Learn about the three main shapes of bacterial cells, their cell arrangements, and spiral cell variations

Bacterial Cytoplasm & Cell Membrane: Structure & Components

2. Bacterial Cytoplasm & Cell Membrane: Structure & Components

A bacterial cell membrane is made of a phospholipid bilayer that functions as a barrier. Bacterial cytoplasm is found within the cell membrane and contains the necessary nutrients and organisms of the cell. Learn about the structure of bacterial cells, the function of each cellular component (cell membrane & cytoplasm), and the importance of surface area/volume to the survival of bacterial cells.

Bacterial Cell Walls: Structure, Function & Types

3. Bacterial Cell Walls: Structure, Function & Types

The primary function of a bacterial cell wall is to preserve the shape and integrity of the cell. However, the cell wall must also be porous to allow for the transportation of nutrients and waste material into and out of the cell. Learn about the structure and types of bacterial cell walls, the function of cell walls, osmotic pressure, cell envelope, cell wall, peptidoglycan, and gram-positive vs. gram-negative bacteria.

Bacterial Structures and Their Functions

4. Bacterial Structures and Their Functions

The external structures of bacterial cells vary per species and each type of structure is made for a specific function that helps the bacteria thrive and survive. Learn about the different types of bacterial structures such as the pili, fimbriae, flagella, glycocalyx, and their specific functions.

Bacterial Endospores: Definition & Formation

5. Bacterial Endospores: Definition & Formation

Bacterial endospores are dormant cell structures produced by some species of bacteria that are resistant to extreme environmental factors, chemical degradation, and time. Learn about ancient bacteria, the definition of bacterial endospores, features of endospores (germination & formation), how to kill endospores, and the relationship between bacterial endospores and disease.

The Bacterial Genome: Structure & Organization

6. The Bacterial Genome: Structure & Organization

Even though bacteria are tiny organisms, they have enormous genomes, which is the full set of genes in an organism. Learn about the structure and organization of the bacterial genome, including how supercoiling allows large-sized genomes to fit inside of cells and how plasmids contribute to bacterial DNA.

Bacterial Plasmids: Definition, Function & Uses

7. Bacterial Plasmids: Definition, Function & Uses

In most cases, the DNA an organism is born with dictates its traits, but for bacteria, plasmids change the game. Learn how F plasmids allow bacteria to transfer characteristics between individuals in tiny packages of DNA, such as R plasmids that protect bacteria and bacteriocins that fight off other bacterias.

Bacterial Conjugation: Definition & Protocol

8. Bacterial Conjugation: Definition & Protocol

While bacteria can reproduce asexually through a cloning process called vertical gene transfer, some bacteria reproduce with horizontal gene transfer using bacterial conjugation. Learn more about the definition and protocol of bacterial conjugation and discover the important roles that plasmid transfer and/or chromosome transfer play in the process.

Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process & Applications

9. Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process & Applications

Bacterial transformation is a natural phenomenon during which bacterial cells take free DNA from the environment and integrate it with bacterial genomes to create genetic diversity within the bacterial population. Learn about bacterial sexual reproduction, the definition of horizontal gene transfer, the process of bacterial transformation, and practical applications of transformation as a tool for biotechnology.

Bacterial Transduction: Definition, Process & Advantages

10. Bacterial Transduction: Definition, Process & Advantages

Transduction is the process by which bacteriophages infect and kill host cells and is necessary to horizontal gene transfers in bacterial cells. Learn about the discovery of transduction and how to define the term, the process and mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer, the two types of transduction (generalized & specialized), and advantages of bacterial transduction.

Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

11. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

Our bodies regulate gene expression. Learn the function of genes and understand gene regulation, including transcriptional repression as well as induction. Explore the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene regulation.

How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

12. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

Operons are groups of genes that control transcription in a prokaryotic cell. Discover how operons repress or induct gene expressions in complex interactions of DNA, enzymes, and regulatory proteins.

Aerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process

13. Aerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process

To understand bacterial metabolism, is it useful to break metabolic processes into individual blocks, exploring how those blocks work together to generate cell energy. Learn to define aerobic bacterial metabolism and discover the process of aerobic bacterial metabolism through visualization of metabolic pathways.

Anaerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process

14. Anaerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process

Bacteria, through a process called anaerobic bacterial metabolism, survive in environments where mammals normally wouldn't be able to. Understand this process through a definition and examples such as nitrate respiration and sulfate respiration.

Bacterial Fermentation Process & Products

15. Bacterial Fermentation Process & Products

Bacterial fermentation is a metabolic process in which bacterial cells use a chemical substrate to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is necessary for energy production and cell growth. Explore bacterial fermentation, anaerobic bacterial metabolism, the basics of fermentation, glycolysis, and other fermentation substrates, and the differences between respiration and fermentation.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a Model Organism or Host Cell

16. Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a Model Organism or Host Cell

Escherichia coli, better known as E. coli, is a mammalian gut bacteria frequently used by scientists as a model organism or host cell to research biological phenomena with the intention of applying discoveries to other biological species. Explore the past and present of E.coli outbreaks, implications of genetic manipulation, and how model organisms assist with biological research.

Growth Requirements of E. coli and Auxotrophs

17. Growth Requirements of E. coli and Auxotrophs

E. coli is prototroph bacteria capable of synthesizing all the growth factors necessary for survival, whereas auxotroph bacteria is a mutant strain incapable of producing a specific growth factor. Learn about extreme bacteria, factors that control the rate of bacterial growth like temperature, oxygen concentration, and pH, as well as the growth requirements of E. coli auxotrophs.

Actinobacteria: Definition & Characteristics

18. Actinobacteria: Definition & Characteristics

Actinobacteria are gram-positive with a high G and C DNA base ratio and are often found in water and soil. Explore the definition and characteristics of actinobacteria and learn about mycobacteria, streptomyces, and additional types of actinobacteria.

Agglutination in Hematology: Definition & Examples

19. Agglutination in Hematology: Definition & Examples

Learn about how red blood cell hemagglutination works and the factors involved in the process. See how hemagglutination is used in the laboratory in an array of tests, from blood typing to the diagnoses of viral illnesses.

Agglutination in Microbiology: Definition & Examples

20. Agglutination in Microbiology: Definition & Examples

Agglutination is the grouping of foreign bodies by the immune system to isolate them from harming the body. Learn the role of antigens and antibodies, as well as examples of the direct and indirect agglutination tests.

Alphaproteobacteria: Definition & Characteristics

21. Alphaproteobacteria: Definition & Characteristics

Learn about the group of bacteria named Alphaproteobacteria, a subgroup of the phylum Proteobacteria. See how plant life benefits from the existence of this uniquely shaped group of bacteria.

Spirochetes: Definition & Characteristics

22. Spirochetes: Definition & Characteristics

A spirochete is a kind of small, corkscrew-shaped bacteria made of prokaryotic cells found living independently or inside of a host, and account for a lot of the biodiversity found in soil and aquatic ecosystems. Investigate the definition of a spirochete, the characteristics of the microorganism, where it's found, and how it can be both beneficial and harmful depending on the type and the host.

Aminoglycosides: List of Examples, Toxicity & Side Effects

23. Aminoglycosides: List of Examples, Toxicity & Side Effects

An aminoglycoside is an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections. Explore the different examples of aminoglycosides, their risks, including toxicity and side effects, and how to prevent negative reactions.

Bacteria: Cell Walls & Respiration

24. Bacteria: Cell Walls & Respiration

In this lesson we'll review what bacteria are and the structure of the cell wall. Then we'll learn the purpose of respiration in the cell and explain in detail how the cell wall allows for respiration in bacteria.

Difference Between Gram Positive & Negative Bacteria

25. Difference Between Gram Positive & Negative Bacteria

To determine what type of bacteria have invaded an organism's body, scientists use a technique called gram staining. Learn more about this process and understand the difference between gram positive and negative bacteria. Review the bacterial cell wall and recognize how this affects whether it is difficult to kill bacteria.

Difference Between Viral & Bacterial Infections

26. Difference Between Viral & Bacterial Infections

This lesson is on viral versus bacterial infections. In this lesson we'll cover what a virus is and how it is different from a bacterium. We'll also go over examples of viral and bacterial infections.

Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Fungi & Bacteria

27. Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Fungi & Bacteria

Do you know what the word entomopathogenic means? Do you know any organisms that would be considered emtomopathogenic? In this lesson you will learn the meaning of this word as well as some examples of organisms that can be described as such.

How are Bacteria Classified?

28. How are Bacteria Classified?

Bacteria are classified according to their color in a Gram test, their shape, or whether or not they need oxygen. Learn about the classification of bacteria, bacterial shapes, and aerobic versus anaerobic bacteria.

Kingdom Bacteria: Definition & Examples

29. Kingdom Bacteria: Definition & Examples

Kingdom bacteria is under the domain eubacteria and there are no other kingdoms under this domain. Study the definition and examples of Kingdom bacteria, the characteristics of eubacteria, the life cycle of bacteria, and diversity.

Ammonification: Definition & Nitrogen Cycle

30. Ammonification: Definition & Nitrogen Cycle

Ammonification is the step in the nitrogen cycle wherein death has occurred, and organic material is converted back into ammonium by decomposing organisms. Follow the stages in the nitrogen cycle, honed in on the process of ammonification.

Amphitrichous Flagella: Definition & Example

31. Amphitrichous Flagella: Definition & Example

An amphitrichous flagella is a movement mechanism found in some bacteria. Explore the definition of this mechanism, learning about examples of arrangements in different bacteria.

Do Bacteria Cells Have a Nucleus?

32. Do Bacteria Cells Have a Nucleus?

Unlike plant and animal cells, bacteria cells do not have a nucleus containing their DNA. Compare the differences in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and the details of their nucleoids.

Do Bacteria Have a Cell Membrane?

33. Do Bacteria Have a Cell Membrane?

Much like animal and plant cells, bacteria cells are contained by a cell membrane and die if the barrier is damaged. Examine the structure and function of the cell membrane of bacteria cells.

Ecological Importance of Bacteria

34. Ecological Importance of Bacteria

The ecological importance of bacteria centers on the microorganisms serving as both producers and decomposers. Explore the role of bacteria in the ecosystem, the role of symbiotic bacteria, and the danger of pathogenic bacteria.

What Is a Colony-Forming Unit? - Definition & Purpose

35. What Is a Colony-Forming Unit? - Definition & Purpose

A colon-forming unit is a way of quantifying the bacteria that have grouped together in petri dishes. Learn the importance of CFUs in describing bacteria and science in general.

What is Acetobacter Aceti?

36. What is Acetobacter Aceti?

The bacterium Acetobacter aceti is excellent at metabolizing ethanol into acetic acid. How does this little bacterium affect a wide variety of ecological niches, and even drive human economy just by doing what it does every day? This lesson describes what Acetobacter aceti is and why it is so important.

Bacillus Subtilis: Characteristics & Arrangement

37. Bacillus Subtilis: Characteristics & Arrangement

Bacillus subtilis is a bacteria that is helpful in the breakdown of food in consumption. Understand the characteristics of this type of bacteria, and how they contribute to the healthy metabolism of different organisms, including humans.

Chapter Practice Exam
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Practice Final Exam
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