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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- What criteria are used to classify bacterial cells?
- What are the parts of a bacterial cell, and how do they function?
- What are bacterial endospores, genomes and plasmids?
- How do bacterial cells adapt to their environments and conjugate?
- How does aerobic and anaerobic bacterial metabolism work?
- What are the primary characteristics and growth needs of E. coli?
1. Bacterial Cell Morphology and Classification: Definition, Shapes & Arrangements
Bacterial cell morphology can be classified into three main shapes, which are coccus, bacillus, and spiral. Learn about the three main shapes of bacterial cells, their cell arrangements, and spiral cell variations
2. Bacterial Cytoplasm & Cell Membrane: Structure & Components
A bacterial cell membrane is made of a phospholipid bilayer that functions as a barrier. Bacterial cytoplasm is found within the cell membrane and contains the necessary nutrients and organisms of the cell. Learn about the structure of bacterial cells, the function of each cellular component (cell membrane & cytoplasm), and the importance of surface area/volume to the survival of bacterial cells.
3. Bacterial Cell Walls: Structure, Function & Types
The primary function of a bacterial cell wall is to preserve the shape and integrity of the cell. However, the cell wall must also be porous to allow for the transportation of nutrients and waste material into and out of the cell. Learn about the structure and types of bacterial cell walls, the function of cell walls, osmotic pressure, cell envelope, cell wall, peptidoglycan, and gram-positive vs. gram-negative bacteria.
4. Bacterial Structures and Their Functions
The external structures of bacterial cells vary per species and each type of structure is made for a specific function that helps the bacteria thrive and survive. Learn about the different types of bacterial structures such as the pili, fimbriae, flagella, glycocalyx, and their specific functions.
5. Bacterial Endospores: Definition & Formation
Bacterial endospores are dormant cell structures produced by some species of bacteria that are resistant to extreme environmental factors, chemical degradation, and time. Learn about ancient bacteria, the definition of bacterial endospores, features of endospores (germination & formation), how to kill endospores, and the relationship between bacterial endospores and disease.
6. The Bacterial Genome: Structure & Organization
Even though bacteria are tiny organisms, they have enormous genomes, which is the full set of genes in an organism. Learn about the structure and organization of the bacterial genome, including how supercoiling allows large-sized genomes to fit inside of cells and how plasmids contribute to bacterial DNA.
7. Bacterial Plasmids: Definition, Function & Uses
In most cases, the DNA an organism is born with dictates its traits, but for bacteria, plasmids change the game. Learn how F plasmids allow bacteria to transfer characteristics between individuals in tiny packages of DNA, such as R plasmids that protect bacteria and bacteriocins that fight off other bacterias.
8. Bacterial Conjugation: Definition & Protocol
While bacteria can reproduce asexually through a cloning process called vertical gene transfer, some bacteria reproduce with horizontal gene transfer using bacterial conjugation. Learn more about the definition and protocol of bacterial conjugation and discover the important roles that plasmid transfer and/or chromosome transfer play in the process.
9. Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process & Applications
Bacterial transformation is a natural phenomenon during which bacterial cells take free DNA from the environment and integrate it with bacterial genomes to create genetic diversity within the bacterial population. Learn about bacterial sexual reproduction, the definition of horizontal gene transfer, the process of bacterial transformation, and practical applications of transformation as a tool for biotechnology.
10. Bacterial Transduction: Definition, Process & Advantages
Transduction is the process by which bacteriophages infect and kill host cells and is necessary to horizontal gene transfers in bacterial cells. Learn about the discovery of transduction and how to define the term, the process and mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer, the two types of transduction (generalized & specialized), and advantages of bacterial transduction.
11. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Our bodies regulate gene expression. Learn the function of genes and understand gene regulation, including transcriptional repression as well as induction. Explore the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene regulation.
12. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Operons are groups of genes that control transcription in a prokaryotic cell. Discover how operons repress or induct gene expressions in complex interactions of DNA, enzymes, and regulatory proteins.
13. Aerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process
To understand bacterial metabolism, is it useful to break metabolic processes into individual blocks, exploring how those blocks work together to generate cell energy. Learn to define aerobic bacterial metabolism and discover the process of aerobic bacterial metabolism through visualization of metabolic pathways.
14. Anaerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process
Bacteria, through a process called anaerobic bacterial metabolism, survive in environments where mammals normally wouldn't be able to. Understand this process through a definition and examples such as nitrate respiration and sulfate respiration.
15. Bacterial Fermentation Process & Products
Bacterial fermentation is a metabolic process in which bacterial cells use a chemical substrate to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is necessary for energy production and cell growth. Explore bacterial fermentation, anaerobic bacterial metabolism, the basics of fermentation, glycolysis, and other fermentation substrates, and the differences between respiration and fermentation.
16. Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a Model Organism or Host Cell
Escherichia coli, better known as E. coli, is a mammalian gut bacteria frequently used by scientists as a model organism or host cell to research biological phenomena with the intention of applying discoveries to other biological species. Explore the past and present of E.coli outbreaks, implications of genetic manipulation, and how model organisms assist with biological research.
17. Growth Requirements of E. coli and Auxotrophs
E. coli is prototroph bacteria capable of synthesizing all the growth factors necessary for survival, whereas auxotroph bacteria is a mutant strain incapable of producing a specific growth factor. Learn about extreme bacteria, factors that control the rate of bacterial growth like temperature, oxygen concentration, and pH, as well as the growth requirements of E. coli auxotrophs.
18. Actinobacteria: Definition & Characteristics
Actinobacteria are gram-positive with a high G and C DNA base ratio and are often found in water and soil. Explore the definition and characteristics of actinobacteria and learn about mycobacteria, streptomyces, and additional types of actinobacteria.
19. Agglutination in Hematology: Definition & Examples
Learn about how red blood cell hemagglutination works and the factors involved in the process. See how hemagglutination is used in the laboratory in an array of tests, from blood typing to the diagnoses of viral illnesses.
20. Agglutination in Microbiology: Definition & Examples
Agglutination is the grouping of foreign bodies by the immune system to isolate them from harming the body. Learn the role of antigens and antibodies, as well as examples of the direct and indirect agglutination tests.
21. Alphaproteobacteria: Definition & Characteristics
Learn about the group of bacteria named Alphaproteobacteria, a subgroup of the phylum Proteobacteria. See how plant life benefits from the existence of this uniquely shaped group of bacteria.
22. Spirochetes: Definition & Characteristics
A spirochete is a kind of small, corkscrew-shaped bacteria made of prokaryotic cells found living independently or inside of a host, and account for a lot of the biodiversity found in soil and aquatic ecosystems. Investigate the definition of a spirochete, the characteristics of the microorganism, where it's found, and how it can be both beneficial and harmful depending on the type and the host.
23. Aminoglycosides: List of Examples, Toxicity & Side Effects
An aminoglycoside is an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections. Explore the different examples of aminoglycosides, their risks, including toxicity and side effects, and how to prevent negative reactions.
24. Bacteria: Cell Walls & Respiration
In this lesson we'll review what bacteria are and the structure of the cell wall. Then we'll learn the purpose of respiration in the cell and explain in detail how the cell wall allows for respiration in bacteria.
25. Difference Between Gram Positive & Negative Bacteria
To determine what type of bacteria have invaded an organism's body, scientists use a technique called gram staining. Learn more about this process and understand the difference between gram positive and negative bacteria. Review the bacterial cell wall and recognize how this affects whether it is difficult to kill bacteria.
26. Difference Between Viral & Bacterial Infections
This lesson is on viral versus bacterial infections. In this lesson we'll cover what a virus is and how it is different from a bacterium. We'll also go over examples of viral and bacterial infections.
27. Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Fungi & Bacteria
Do you know what the word entomopathogenic means? Do you know any organisms that would be considered emtomopathogenic? In this lesson you will learn the meaning of this word as well as some examples of organisms that can be described as such.
28. How are Bacteria Classified?
Bacteria are classified according to their color in a Gram test, their shape, or whether or not they need oxygen. Learn about the classification of bacteria, bacterial shapes, and aerobic versus anaerobic bacteria.
29. Kingdom Bacteria: Definition & Examples
Kingdom bacteria is under the domain eubacteria and there are no other kingdoms under this domain. Study the definition and examples of Kingdom bacteria, the characteristics of eubacteria, the life cycle of bacteria, and diversity.
30. Ammonification: Definition & Nitrogen Cycle
Ammonification is the step in the nitrogen cycle wherein death has occurred, and organic material is converted back into ammonium by decomposing organisms. Follow the stages in the nitrogen cycle, honed in on the process of ammonification.
31. Amphitrichous Flagella: Definition & Example
An amphitrichous flagella is a movement mechanism found in some bacteria. Explore the definition of this mechanism, learning about examples of arrangements in different bacteria.
32. Do Bacteria Cells Have a Nucleus?
Unlike plant and animal cells, bacteria cells do not have a nucleus containing their DNA. Compare the differences in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and the details of their nucleoids.
33. Do Bacteria Have a Cell Membrane?
Much like animal and plant cells, bacteria cells are contained by a cell membrane and die if the barrier is damaged. Examine the structure and function of the cell membrane of bacteria cells.
34. Ecological Importance of Bacteria
The ecological importance of bacteria centers on the microorganisms serving as both producers and decomposers. Explore the role of bacteria in the ecosystem, the role of symbiotic bacteria, and the danger of pathogenic bacteria.
35. What Is a Colony-Forming Unit? - Definition & Purpose
A colon-forming unit is a way of quantifying the bacteria that have grouped together in petri dishes. Learn the importance of CFUs in describing bacteria and science in general.
36. What is Acetobacter Aceti?
The bacterium Acetobacter aceti is excellent at metabolizing ethanol into acetic acid. How does this little bacterium affect a wide variety of ecological niches, and even drive human economy just by doing what it does every day? This lesson describes what Acetobacter aceti is and why it is so important.
37. Bacillus Subtilis: Characteristics & Arrangement
Bacillus subtilis is a bacteria that is helpful in the breakdown of food in consumption. Understand the characteristics of this type of bacteria, and how they contribute to the healthy metabolism of different organisms, including humans.
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Other chapters within the Microbiology: Help and Review course
- Biology Basics for Microbiology: Help and Review
- Microbiology Basics: Help and Review
- Microbiology Laboratory Techniques: Help and Review
- Microorganisms and the Environment: Help and Review
- The Disease Process: Help and Review
- Introduction to Viruses: Help and Review
- DNA Viruses: Help and Review
- RNA Viruses: Help and Review
- Protozoan Diseases: Help and Review
- Fungal Infections: Help and Review
- Gastrointestinal Tract Illnesses & Infections: Help & Review
- Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Diseases: Help and Review
- Bloodborne Bacterial Diseases: Help and Review
- Bacterial Diseases of the Respiratory Tract: Help and Review
- Bacterial Skin and Wound Infections: Help and Review
- Immunology And the Body's Defenses Against Pathogens: Help and Review
- Antimicrobial Drugs: Help and Review
- Food and Industrial Microbiology: Help and Review
- Sterilization and Antiseptic Techniques: Help and Review
- Professional Issues in Nutrition