About This Chapter
Bacterial Biology Overview - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Bacteria are small single-celled organisms, but they don't all look the same. In this chapter, you'll start off by reviewing the different shapes and characteristics of bacteria and the functions of their cell walls and cell membrane before moving on to more advanced lessons. You'll examine how endospores are formed and take a look at bacterial conjugation, transformation and transduction. You'll examine the basics of fermentation and find out why E. coli is considered a model organism. At the end of this chapter, you'll understand:
- How bacterial cells are classified
- Components of cytoplasm
- Functions of bacterial structures
- Characteristics of the bacterial genome
- Uses for bacterial plasmids
- Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism processes
|Bacterial Cell Morphology and Classification: Definition, Shapes & Arrangements||Examine the three primary shapes of bacteria and how they are arranged. Find out the three forms that characterize spiral bacteria.|
|Bacterial Cytoplasm & Cell Membrane: Structure & Components||Determine the contents of the cell membrane and why it's important. Investigate the cytoplasm and find out why the surface area of a cell matters.|
|Bacterial Cell Walls: Structure, Function & Types||Discover how osmotic pressure is related to bacteria and review the benefits of cell walls. Get details on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.|
|Bacterial Structures and Their Functions||Take a look at the jobs performed by the external bacterial structures pili and fimbriae. Study flagellum and glycocalyx.|
|Bacterial Endospores: Definition & Formation||Define endospores and see the different phases involved in their formation. Learn about their features and how they are connected to diseases.|
|The Bacterial Genome: Structure & Organization||Find out how DNA is organized in bacterial cells. Get details on the size of a genome and its characteristics.|
|Bacterial Plasmids: Definition, Function & Uses||Examine the features of plasmids and learn about the different types. Find out why they are important and what happens when plasmids are removed from bacterial cells.|
|Bacterial Conjugation: Definition & Protocol||Learn about reproduction in bacteria. Get an overview of vertical and horizontal gene transfer. Find out the three methods for horizontal gene transfer.|
|Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process & Applications||Learn about competent cells and discover why transformation is important. Find out how transformation is used in biotechnology.|
|Bacterial Transduction: Definition, Process & Advantages||Determine the two types of transduction and learn about bacteriophages. Find out how transduction was initially discovered.|
|Aerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process||Study the process of aerobic respiration. Get definitions for glycolysis, the electron transport chain and the ATP synthase.|
|Anaerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process||Find out what happens during anaerobic respiration. Discover nitrate and sulfate respiration.|
|Bacterial Fermentation Process & Products||Get the definition for fermentation and find out about fermentation reactions. Review the different forms of fermentation and how respiration differs from fermentation.|
|Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a Model Organism or Host Cell||Find out why E. coli is the most studied organism. Get details on where it can survive and its five major attributes.|
|Growth Requirements of E. coli and Auxotrophs||Discover the major elements and variables that affect the growth of E. coli. Find out why these growth requirements are important and how auxotrophs are used to study the growth factors of E. coli.|
1. Bacterial Cell Morphology and Classification: Definition, Shapes & Arrangements
Do all bacteria look the same? Definitely not! These tiny, singled-celled organisms come in a variety of morphologies, from cocci to spirals to tetrads. Many bacterial names even have clues to their morphology!
2. Bacterial Cytoplasm & Cell Membrane: Structure & Components
Some people say a bacterial cell is just a simple bag of enzymes. This couldn't be further from the truth! Learn about the structure and function of the bacterial cell membrane, what's in the cytoplasm, and how membrane surface area impacts bacterial size.
3. Bacterial Cell Walls: Structure, Function & Types
The bacterial cell wall has to be strong to prevent cell lysis but also porous to allow transport across the cell membrane. In this lesson, we will examine the structure of the bacterial cell wall and how it accomplishes both of these crucial tasks.
4. Bacterial Structures and Their Functions
A bacterial cell is not smooth like a balloon. Bacteria can be covered with a wide range of structures like pili and capsules that give each species of bacteria different abilities. In this lesson, you will learn about several of these key external structures of bacteria.
5. Bacterial Endospores: Definition & Formation
Some bacteria have the ability to enter a state of suspended animation when conditions are unfavorable. In this lesson, we will examine the bacterial endospore and learn how and why bacteria produce these structures.
6. The Bacterial Genome: Structure & Organization
All organisms have DNA. While the basic structure of DNA is the same, the organization of the DNA in bacterial cells is very different than in human or animal cells. In this lesson we will explore the basics of the bacterial genome.
7. Bacterial Plasmids: Definition, Function & Uses
What if you could pick up bits of DNA and change your traits? In the animal kingdom, organisms are born with their lifetime total of DNA. In the bacterial world, cells can add to their genome by acquiring plasmids.
8. Bacterial Conjugation: Definition & Protocol
You probably didn't know that bacteria can engage in sexual reproduction. It is not what you think. In this lesson we will explore the process of bacterial conjugation and its impact on genetic variability in bacteria.
9. Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process & Applications
DNA is all around you. So are bacteria. Did you know that those bacteria can pick up and use that DNA? In this lesson we will examine the process of transformation and how bacteria are able to make use of environmental DNA.
10. Bacterial Transduction: Definition, Process & Advantages
Genetic diversity allows organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In this lesson, we will explore bacterial transduction and how it allows bacteria to transfer genes and increase genetic diversity.
11. Aerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process
Respiration is the process of converting nutrients into usable energy. Several different mechanisms exist in the bacterial world. In this lesson, we will examine the role of oxygen in bacterial aerobic respiration.
12. Anaerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process
Bacteria are metabolically versatile and can grow in a range of environments. Many bacteria grow in environments without oxygen using anaerobic respiration and fermentation. This lesson will discuss the process of anaerobic respiration in bacteria.
13. Bacterial Fermentation Process & Products
Bacteria in anaerobic environments can break down organic compounds using fermentation. If you have ever eaten a fermented food, such as bread, yogurt or cheese, you have tasted the products of fermentation. Now, learn the details of this process.
14. Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a Model Organism or Host Cell
A model organism can help scientists perform faster and more efficient biological research. This lesson examines the most utilized model organism, E. coli, and looks at the major characteristics that make it a perfect model.
15. Growth Requirements of E. coli and Auxotrophs
Escherichia coli is a normal inhabitant of your gastrointestinal tract. In this lesson we will examine the conditions required for optimal growth of E. coli both in your colon and in culture.
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