About This Chapter
Bacterial Biology - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Bacteria are microscopic, almost everywhere in the world, and essential to many biological processes. In this chapter, instructor Angela Hartsock will explain bacterial structures, processes, and functions. You'll learn about the bacterial cell, including its walls, DNA, and endospores. Bacteria are used in many experiments and laboratories, and our lessons will explain some of the reasons why they are so useful. You'll learn all about bacteria through real-world examples and detailed diagrams and animations. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- Bacterial cell structure
- Genetic processes in bacteria
- Scientific uses of bacteria
- Bacterial metabolic processes
- The effects of bacteria on other organisms
|Bacterial Cell Morphology and Classification: Definition, Shapes, and Arrangements||Learn about the different shapes and arrangements of bacterial cells.|
|Bacterial Cytoplasm and Cell Membrane: Structure and Components||Understand the bacterial cell structure, including the cell membrane, genome, and ribosomes.|
|Bacterial Cell Walls and the Gram Stain Test||Explore the structure of bacterial cell walls and how Gram staining can help differentiate between types of bacteria.|
|Bacterial Structures and Their Functions||Learn about bacterial structures, including flagella, pili, and capsules.|
|Bacterial Endospores: Definition and Formation||Understand the bacterial structure that allows certain bacteria to lie dormant for extended periods.|
|The Bacterial Genome: Structure and Organization||Explore the size and shape of the bacterial genome and how it's different from other DNA.|
|Bacterial Plasmids: Definition, Function, and Uses||Learn about a separate DNA structure called a plasmid and how it is useful to scientists.|
|Bacterial Conjugation: Definition and Protocol||Understand this method of direct gene transfer between bacterial cells.|
|Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process, and Applications||Explore how bacteria can have altered DNA as a result of transformation.|
|Bacterial Transduction: Definition, Process, and Advantages||Learn about the viral transfer of genetic material into bacteria.|
|Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction||Understand how and when bacterial genes are expressed.|
|How An Operon Controls Transcription||Explore how operons, or clusters of genes, function within the bacterial cell.|
|Aerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition and Process||Learn about how bacterial cells live in an oxygen-rich environment.|
|Anaerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition and Process||Understand the ways in which bacteria function in an environment lacking oxygen.|
|Bacterial Fermentation Process and Products||Explore the fermentation process and what that process produces.|
|Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a Model Organism or Host Cell||Learn about E. coli and why it is so useful in scientific research.|
|Growth Requirements of E. coli and Auxotrophs||Understand what bacteria need to survive and what happens when a bacteria can't make everything it needs.|
|Tooth Decay and Cavities||Explore the bacteria and process involved in the breakdown of enamel, dentin, and cementum.|
1. Bacterial Cell Morphology and Classification: Definition, Shapes & Arrangements
Do all bacteria look the same? Definitely not! These tiny, singled-celled organisms come in a variety of morphologies, from cocci to spirals to tetrads. Many bacterial names even have clues to their morphology!
2. Bacterial Cytoplasm & Cell Membrane: Structure & Components
Some people say a bacterial cell is just a simple bag of enzymes. This couldn't be further from the truth! Learn about the structure and function of the bacterial cell membrane, what's in the cytoplasm, and how membrane surface area impacts bacterial size.
3. Bacterial Cell Walls: Structure, Function & Types
The bacterial cell wall has to be strong to prevent cell lysis but also porous to allow transport across the cell membrane. In this lesson, we will examine the structure of the bacterial cell wall and how it accomplishes both of these crucial tasks.
4. Bacterial Structures and Their Functions
A bacterial cell is not smooth like a balloon. Bacteria can be covered with a wide range of structures like pili and capsules that give each species of bacteria different abilities. In this lesson, you will learn about several of these key external structures of bacteria.
5. Bacterial Endospores: Definition & Formation
Some bacteria have the ability to enter a state of suspended animation when conditions are unfavorable. In this lesson, we will examine the bacterial endospore and learn how and why bacteria produce these structures.
6. The Bacterial Genome: Structure & Organization
All organisms have DNA. While the basic structure of DNA is the same, the organization of the DNA in bacterial cells is very different than in human or animal cells. In this lesson we will explore the basics of the bacterial genome.
7. Bacterial Plasmids: Definition, Function & Uses
What if you could pick up bits of DNA and change your traits? In the animal kingdom, organisms are born with their lifetime total of DNA. In the bacterial world, cells can add to their genome by acquiring plasmids.
8. Bacterial Conjugation: Definition & Protocol
You probably didn't know that bacteria can engage in sexual reproduction. It is not what you think. In this lesson we will explore the process of bacterial conjugation and its impact on genetic variability in bacteria.
9. Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process & Applications
DNA is all around you. So are bacteria. Did you know that those bacteria can pick up and use that DNA? In this lesson we will examine the process of transformation and how bacteria are able to make use of environmental DNA.
10. Bacterial Transduction: Definition, Process & Advantages
Genetic diversity allows organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In this lesson, we will explore bacterial transduction and how it allows bacteria to transfer genes and increase genetic diversity.
11. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
12. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.
13. Aerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process
Respiration is the process of converting nutrients into usable energy. Several different mechanisms exist in the bacterial world. In this lesson, we will examine the role of oxygen in bacterial aerobic respiration.
14. Anaerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process
Bacteria are metabolically versatile and can grow in a range of environments. Many bacteria grow in environments without oxygen using anaerobic respiration and fermentation. This lesson will discuss the process of anaerobic respiration in bacteria.
15. Bacterial Fermentation Process & Products
Bacteria in anaerobic environments can break down organic compounds using fermentation. If you have ever eaten a fermented food, such as bread, yogurt or cheese, you have tasted the products of fermentation. Now, learn the details of this process.
16. Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a Model Organism or Host Cell
A model organism can help scientists perform faster and more efficient biological research. This lesson examines the most utilized model organism, E. coli, and looks at the major characteristics that make it a perfect model.
17. Growth Requirements of E. coli and Auxotrophs
Escherichia coli is a normal inhabitant of your gastrointestinal tract. In this lesson we will examine the conditions required for optimal growth of E. coli both in your colon and in culture.
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Other chapters within the UExcel Microbiology: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Early History of Microbiology
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- Understanding Metabolism
- Understanding Diseases
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