About This Chapter
Basic Anatomy and Cell Biology - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
This chapter covers basic concepts related to anatomy and cell biology. Lessons will go over concepts that include phospholipid bilayer and the fluid mosaic model. You'll get to study passive and active transport in cells. We will also take a look at endocytosis and exocytosis across the cell membrane. There are a few lessons that cover the specifics of epithelium tissues. You'll also get a chance to study the body axes and planes, anatomical positioning and histological sections. Some of the more specific topics that will be covered in this chapter include:
- Organ systems
- Simple columnar epithelium
- Anterior and posterior
- Transverse and sagittal
|How a Phospholipid Bilayer is Both Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic||Examine the properties and characteristics of a phospholipid.|
|The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane||Take a deeper look at the cell membrane, including a study of selective permeability, fluid mosaic model and cytoplasm.|
|Passive Transport in Cells: Simple and Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis||Examine diffusion and osmosis in the passive transport in cells.|
|Active Transport in Cells: Definition & Examples||Discover the function of active transport in cells.|
|Endocytosis and Exocytosis Across the Cell Membrane||Study endocytosis and exocytosis in the cell membrane, including a look at phagocytosis, autophagy, secretory vesicle, endocytic vesicle and lysozyme.|
|Multicellular Organisms, Tissues and Epithelium||Analyze multicellular organisms, tissues and epithelium and vocabulary including organ, organ system, basement membrane and villi.|
|The Skin and Squamous Epithelial Tissues||Study vocabulary related to the skin and squamous epithelial tissues, like simple squamous epithelium, stratified squamous epithelium and dermis.|
|Columnar and Cuboidal Epithelial Tissues||Find out more about simple cuboidal epithelium, stratified cuboidal epithelium, simple columnar epithelium and pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium.|
|Body Axes and Anatomical Positioning||Take a look at body axes and anatomical positioning to learn about terms like anterior, posterior, dorsal, ventral, appendages, proximal and distal.|
|Body Planes and Histological Sections||Learn more about body planes and histological sections, such as sagittal, transverse and coronal.|
1. How a Phospholipid Bilayer Is Both Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic
In this lesson, we will learn what gives phospholipids a dual personality. How can this molecule be both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and why is this important to a cell?
2. The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we will discuss the components of the cell membrane and why the fluid mosaic model paints the best picture of its structure. We'll learn about the roles of the phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, proteins and carbohydrates.
3. Passive Transport in Cells: Simple and Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis
A cell membrane is selectively permeable - not permeable to everything. In this lesson, we'll talk about methods of passive transport along a concentration gradient, including simple and facilitated diffusion and osmosis.
4. Active Transport in Cells: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we'll learn how substances are transported across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient. This might seem like an uphill battle for the cell, but all it takes is a little chemical energy and a few integral membrane proteins to kick off some active transport!
5. Endocytosis and Exocytosis Across the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we'll discover how some cells can eat, drink, and digest their dinner through the process of endocytosis and a structure called the lysosome. In addition, we'll learn how a cell can throw out the leftovers across the cell membrane during exocytosis.
6. Multicellular Organisms, Tissues and Epithelium
In this lesson on multicellular organisms, you'll take a look at what it actually means to be multicellular and how cells are organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems. This lesson also covers one of the four main tissue types: epithelial tissue.
7. Human Skin: Layers, Function & Structure
This lesson will cover the three main layers of your skin, which includes the epidermis, dermis, and subcutis. In addition, we'll learn about other skin cells and tissue, such as adipose tissue, keratinocytes, melanocytes, and Merkel's cells.
8. What Is Epithelial Tissue? - Function, Types & Structure
This lesson will cover the different shapes and structures of epithelial tissue, including simple, columnar, cuboidal, stratified, transitional, squamous, and pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
9. Anatomical Directional Terminology: Anterior, Posterior and More
Find out how to properly refer to the location of things at the front and back of a person as well as above or below a certain point on the body by learning the terms anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior.
10. Anatomical Directional Terminology: Limbs, Hands & Feet
In this lesson, you'll learn how we term the different sides of our feet and hands thanks to words like dorsal, plantar and palmar. You'll also learn how we name something that is near or far away from the trunk of our body thanks to words like proximal and distal.
11. Anatomical Directional Terminology: Lateral, Medial & More
Learn what it means to be on the same side as something else or on a different side altogether. In addition, find out what it means to be closer to or farther away from the middle of something as we explore the following terms: lateral, medial, ipsilateral, and contralateral.
12. Planes of the Human Body: Definition, Anatomy & Diagram
Learn about the different ways in which your body can be divided or cut up for theoretical and practical purposes as we explore the sagittal plane, transverse plane and coronal plane.
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Other chapters within the UExcel Anatomy & Physiology: Study Guide & Test Prep course
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